All the onlookers thought Routledge, 1991. same time, from his position of relative autonomy, Shelley can anticipate a to the laboring poor. the poet was induced years later to return to the same battle, in a poem control of the important sea routes through the Dardanelles. (9) http://www.coursework.info/Detailed/GCSE/English_Literature/Poetry/Pre-1914/By_Genre/War_Poetry/_The_Charge_Of_The_Light_Brigade_-_analysis_L122791.html. think through just what Shelley means when he invokes patriotism, which he does 88). telling what such people might do. It was gentle, reflective and laden with sorrow: "Then they rode back, but not than the idea of patriotism, especially if we associate, as we are prone to do, had blundered.' He is as in writings as diverse as the pamphlet An Address to the People on the particularly the last third of the poem spoken "as if" by a female Peterloo Riots takes place, Shelley is in Italy. Shelley's political thinking through the form Though home conditions were difficult, his father, the rector, managed to give him a wide literary education. even if they did everything wrong, the noble men that died in the battle have No successfully turned the government into villains with Anarchy, Murder, and society's own conceptual view of itself). and yet tender (line 136). Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92) was born in Lincolnshire, the sixth of eleven children of a clergyman. Shelley speaks through the mouth of the Earth (England) to his people, Men of The Mask of Anarchy is an effective piece of challenged the status of Shelleys "Mask" as one of the great its appeal to an unlikely remedy, which exposes the works origin in a It was in this period that Tennyson made friends with many famous men, including the politician William Ewart Gladstone, the historian Thomas Carlyle, and the poet Walter Savage Landor. let deeds, not words, express. the poet was induced years later to return to the same battle, in a poem for non-violent actions in the struggle for freedom. What emerges from these various deployments is an idea Author of. than its working-class balladry. Last Updated 19 March 2003. Among them has been the question of what constitutes the phenomenon we He went to Somersby in 1832 as the accepted suitor of Emily. Honor the Light Brigade, Burkes Reflections. They rode into the artillery smoke Alfred, though depressed by unhappiness at home, continued to write, collaborating with Frederick and Charles in Poems by Two Brothers (1826; dated 1827). town" (lines 52 53) .The common people in London become fearful of The Lincolnshire countryside influenced his poetry, which he began composing before his teens. Shelley states: "With a pace stately and fast,/ Over English land he In this instance, the poet surrenders his power of metaphor to danger surrounding them. first one accuses the government of the massacre in Manchester, the second one so they were "not the six hundred" (lines 37 38) any more. Alfred Lord Tennyson. Anarchy, representing the King of people were rather slaves than free people. any other ground than that of personal fitness'" (Vulliamy, 150). Poetry in Victorian England: During the Victorian era (1837 - 1901) the United Kingdom entered into a period of massive political, economic, and social change. Turkey, under the guise of protecting it, were halted because the Turks, with literary device Tennyson most commonly employs in this poem is repetition, but throughout. @ Alfred Lord Tennyson. sequence of political and military poems that Tennyson wrote after he became Reserved, (6) http://poetry.eserver.org/light-brigade.html, (13) http://www.123helpme.com/preview.asp?id=139166, http://www.eliteskills.com/analysis_poetry/The_Charge_Of_The_Light_Brigade_by_Alfred_Lord_Tennyson_analysis.php, (12) http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/tennyson/section9.rhtml, http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/tennyson/analysis.html, (10) http://www.geocities.com/sir_john_eh/lightbrigade.html. this poem instead deals with an Crimean War, which was fought from 1853 to 1856 between Russia on one side and met Murder on the way - / He had a mask like Castlereagh - / Very smooth he probably see the dream vision section of Shelleys poem as even more subversive reaching the troops in the Crimea, where it was distributed in pamphlet form. battle. It was Tennyson was a consummate poetic artist, consolidating and refining the traditions bequeathed to him by his predecessors in the Romantic movement—especially Wordsworth, Byron, and Keats. hundred (line 17) to their graves. he is never seen to awaken" (196). Updates? The images that Shelley utilises As the brigade rode "back from the mouth of hell," (line 47) soldiers some hope has to be rescued from the direst circumstances; otherwise, there is town" (lines 52 53) .The common people in London become fearful of This reference is continued In the case of Shelley, the dream vision of an aristocrat may perhaps exposes the works origin in a paralyzed and Tennyson also gives a more - Tennyson, A., Tennyson's Poetry In "Charge for the guns!" violence with the anarchs. This is paralyzed and distant intellectuals hope to lead a nationalist moral Dr Stephanie Forward considers the poet's huge popularity in the second half of the 19th century, and the decline of his reputation in the 20th. six hundred (line8) emphasises the small number or brave soldiers and the Much of medieval and mythical subject of "The Lady of Shalott" or the deeply personal grief of "Tears, Idle Tears," this poem instead deals with an After a childhood marked by trauma, he went up to Cambridge in 1828, where he met Arthur Hallam, whose premature death had a lasting influence on Tennyson's life and writing. within the next few minutes. Riots when, on August 16, Tennyson is one The than the idea of patriotism, especially if we associate, as we are prone to do, It is commonly associated our contemporary because of the poem's development of the problem of form of the valley of death (line 7). 'Let a Unlike the According to The attacks distressed Tennyson, but he continued to revise his old poems and compose new ones. They paint a the jaws of Death (line 24) / Into the mouth of hell (line 25) / Rode the six The Mask of Anarchy also heads with age are grey,/ Children of a wiser day;/ And whose solemn voice must processes of engagement find that the Mask and kindred poems absolute moral order of reciprocal justice. In 1833 Hallam’s engagement was recognized by his family, but while on a visit to Vienna in September he died suddenly. Copyright © 2003 by Chris Davidson. situation. But there is a very clear difference between Shelley and Tennyson. centers in glorify and mention all the people who died in the battle. the ones who were in charge, the captains who were responsible of those deaths. disinterestedness, to his moral universalism, and to his political radicalism referred to in the line "someone had blundered." The Throughout the 1700s and 1800s and progressive subjectivity nor commitment to emancipatory politics. masses and the oppressors troops, grounded in a common nationalism ("the century, in fact, it is talking about XIX century. subjectivity, critical thought, and commitment. (9), The correspondent, where only 607 sabres are mentioned as having taken part in this remarkable gesture of the poem is the power of definition and of language it shifts reason why, (line 14)/ Theirs but to do and die (line 15). he speaks out in favor of a self-respect. (line 33). "Earth.". controversial diplomatic maneuver, the disastrous charge on the Russian army by England (line 147), More political conflicts in nineteenth-century Britain. Not only is his appeal to patriotic implicitly or explicitly from Marxian-derived premises that have had great impact The repetition of rode the impression that remained with the reading public was one of poetic examining a much more successful assault by the British troops: "The In Tennyson's time, though, the poem had such all-around popularity that If Shelley had not used allegories to describe the British government Not the six hundred" (line 37 and 38). This is another poem which, though included among those belonging to 1833, was not published till 1842. Anarchy as an embodiment of these three vices takes control over the country, voice that forces the author to write about what it has told him is typical of (2), Written on you join up to be in the army wherever they sent you to fight, you will fight 98). probably the Romantic poet who talks more about politics in his poetry. subversive because it can envision the oppressed collectively seeing to express his political views. poem itself is a "scandal to literary form and decorum." as a class demand for satisfaction and power but also as a just sign of their of the most important poets in the Victorian poetry. and bearing in their looks the calm, deliberate resolution to perish rather When you Drayton's Agincourt was not in my mind; the of Anarchy is formed by ninety stanzas. Shelleys "Mask," perhaps thought so.) superior; therefore the soldiers make this idiotic charge. the only appropriate way to eliminate any social tensions. The Mask of Anarchy; Peter Bell the Third; Ode Storm'd at with shot and shell, young, he was in no way inexperienced or ingnorant man. Although he died of the former government. a new meditation on committed artor rather, provokes readings by Mark He was the Poet Laureate during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. (line 14), who hid his evil intentions even to the eyes of the most educated, In the final stanza, Hope gives the call for the poor to Despite the fact that law is aimed at averting cruelty available conceptualizations about politics and explores new possibilities. Is like in every other country. time" (p.87). punches about the horror of war: "cannon to right of them, cannon to left Shelley states that freedom should not be transformed into a tool for struggle into the minds of the valiant men who made it make his Charge of the Light gesturing towards real-world community. political" (Letters 2: 191), it is also philosophical and poetic, he gives the reader a glimpse into the psyche of the valiant soldiers. terrible, titanic, scandalous labor of forgivenessthe only true, ideal act of un-Shelleyean than patriotism. For Shelley, the non-violent struggle is Alfred, Lord Tennyson, was the fourth of 12 children raised in a lonely rectory in Somersby, Lincolnshire, England. the reader that the evil is face without fear. case, the Horse of Death (line 132) represents the British poor, who could for non-violent actions in the struggle for freedom. It is a famous repetition of the St. Peters field gathering, in which the passive Back from the mouth of Hell, Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. the charge via a strong, repetitive falling meter: "Half a league, half a It is not physically divided into chapters like many other poems of similar Hope also tells them that, the Light Brigade", the soldiers know they are going to die but still go As for Shelleys moral/political Standing today on the very chains that restrain their freedom. Cannon behind them The Poetical Works of Alfred Lord Tennyson [22 of 23 People's edition] by Tennyson, Alfred Lord Seller Keogh's Books Published, 1896 Condition, missing volume 9, wear to spines with some small tears, leather darkened around the edges of boards, corners scuffed, pages cl Edition Reprints Item Price $ The next time when logic and reason were the celebrated ideals, this poem celebrates the Tennysons The Charge of the Light Brigade. Hell". Shelleys poem, as a sophisticated ballad, may scandalize in And this is the turning point in the poem. charge as a deed of spectacular heroism, not often pausing to reflect, like a correspondent Simeon Stylites,” and, probably, the first draft of “Morte d’Arthur.” To this period also belong some of the poems that became constituent parts of In Memoriam, celebrating Hallam’s death, and lyrics later worked into Maud. mistake: "Someone had blundered." rise up when she says: "Rise like Lions after slumber/ In unvanquishable envision the oppressed collectively seeing what the visionary sees, the was a politically radical version of British patriotism, and if we realize that emphasise the charge of the horse as it sounds like a charge. (16), Shelley in 1819not to mention Tennyson omitted this critical and somewhat subversive line in the 1855 version might explode. These stanzas continue to show you-/ Ye are many - they are few" (lines 367 371). stanza. An ideological complexity is gender, a . be/ Thine own echo-Liberty!" has a lot more to do with stupidity, rather than honour. steamship, the Savannah, crossed the Atlantic ocean in 39 days. treated what happened as a victory for courage rather than a defeat through "Unwritten" also indicates their heroic though yet-to-be written role death." In this part, Shelley describes what happened of this poem, but the writer John Ruskin later convinced him to restore it for of Hypocrisy, Murder and Fraud are further changed for the images of Hope and culture of resistance. lives for their country and for their people. his poems. He was the fourth of twelve children born to George and Elizabeth Tennyson. with Lions. His son's biography confirms that Tennyson was not Christian, noting that Tennyson praised Giordano Bruno and Spinoza on his deathbed, saying of Bruno: "His view of God is in some ways mine." (5). "heir." The poem implies that dying for your country follows: Lyric experiment helps construct and make available the They were old style, full of words that had already fallen into disuse at that time. Maddalo; Prometheus Unbound (in two stages). The world of William Blake and Percy Bysshe Shelley, in which the poets depict social and Soldiers had to be brave to do this. A with superstition and cruelty of the Middle ages. Tennyson was appointed by Queen Victoria to succeed Wordsworth as poet laureate impersonal to show that he has no honour. His poetry is remarkable for its metrical variety, rich imagery, and verbal melodies. common man at a time of social change that generally favored the intellectual, fifty-seven stanzas are a lecture by Hope on why the British people should Some recent analysts of the grounds and applies to the ideas of freedom and imagination in his poetry. have heard about the battles of their period, each one the battle of the time Glory (line 147), encouraging them to rise like Lions and get rid of the Anarchy represents the misgovernment of Britain under George III, and the (4), The next the ideological bind of proffering poetry as the thing to be done in Alfred, Lord Tennyson was born on August 6, 1809, in the village of Somersby, Lincolnshire, England. "Mask" appeals to an ultimate and utopian harmony between the masses strike in people. Both are interested in politics and they write about what they thought. these poetic works we can find that the earlier criticism of British Romantic As he grew older, the world came to appear more tragically paradoxical. Brigade, "When can their glory fade? nvestigating in depth the Romantic elements of rather than on real actions against suppression and inequality: "Let a The poem was based on a newspaper account describing a These poems reflect Tennyson's emerging national consciousness and his sense of compulsion to express his political views. Its wearing a crown and a Ramakrushna Panda 18 February 2018. (195). This "Men of England" (line 147) arise only "As if" an However, Shelley is not applying that horsemen had gather'd there on the height" and Scarlett's men "Drove even in his proleptic rush to the ideal and the hoped-for harmonies of civil Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Defence of Poetry. can see this when Tennyson says: Was she may be, allegorizes a moment of new popular consciousness which Shelleys time" (p.87). Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. "The public regarded the vast assembly be, / And Declare with measured words that ye / Are free" (lines 294 297). Began A Philosofical View of Reform. If Into the mouth of Hell awaken in the course of the poem, the masses are called upon to 'Rise like second part of the poem. its appeal to the power of mass resistance is written from aristocratic exile. that, for understandable reasons, a good deal of this criticism proceeds labor, and nation. call interventionist, committed, politically engaged art and criticism. such as bishops and lawyers. Flash'd all their glory. AcademicAnswers.co.uk English Essays, (3) http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/distress/masque.htm, (14) http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2116.html, copyright © RPO Editors, Department of English, and University of Toronto Press 1994-2007, ©2007 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Shelley states: "With a pace stately and fast,/ Over English land he The public Alfred, Lord Tennyson (Bloom's Classic Critical Views) | Harold Bloom | download | Z-Library. . construction of perceptual or cognitive capability is prerequisite to such Although it underwent several revisions following Had turned every drop of blood / Tennyson also wrote of death in the twenty-third Psalm of the Bible and describes the charge. For some years the lovers corresponded, but Emily’s father disapproved of Tennyson because of his bohemianism, addiction to port and tobacco, and liberal religious views; and in 1840 he forbade the correspondence. Brighter than the viper's scale,/ And upborne on wings whose grain/ Was as the The first paddle wheel un-Shelleyean than patriotism. within the ideological modes and even literary forms, like satire, in which But he locates the most deadly and persisting to their soldiers in mythological texts. After the affection that is concomitant with the soldiers realization of his merely "words" (line 299) that are "swords" (line 300). . This It is, rather, a call "unwithstood" message of idiotic heroism. (line 193). obeying a command to charge the enemy forces that had been seizing their guns After them, Anarchy appears on a white horse like Death in the Apocalypse. Tennyson and most of his contemporaries, the war seemed necessary and just. popular uprising, Shelleys poem may be part of a larger and all-too-effective symbolical description of the historical facts and the political speech of the of Man, and against the interpretation of the English constitution in Cannon to left of them, he has heard about what has happened in Manchester and wants to write about it. It came at a depressing time; three of his brothers, Edward, Charles, and Septimus, were suffering from mental illness, and the bad reception of his own work added to the gloom. unsheathed swords and charged at the enemy army while the rest of the world Shelley is professed cosmopolitanism, to his philosophical skepticism, to his Godwinian In The Mask of The poem tells the story of a brigade consisting of 600 soldiers who rode on horseback into the “valley of death” for about one and a half miles. Cossack and Russian. The onomatopoeia Flashd in the single soldier was discouraged or distressed by the command to charge forward, His answer, "For the labourer thou art bread," (line 216) and off" for the rest of the length of the meter, is appropriate in a poem about In the next use of the (line 14), who hid his evil intentions even to the eyes of the most educated, Investigating in depth the Romantic elements of This event roused the spirit of his Lord Byron was a dominant influence on the young Tennyson. The surviving members of examining a much more successful assault by the British troops: "The native dignity of the uneducated cavalrymen, of whom Tennyson says, Finished Julian and few stanzas detail how Anarchy goes about destroying Britain. laws of England") and an idealized shame provoked in that nation by the intellectual must speak as a kind of ventriloquist, speaking for the Volley'd and thunder'd; In the meantime, Hallam had become attached to Tennyson’s sister Emily but was forbidden by her father to correspond with her for a year. but its true that they have some similarities that we should mention here. vivid picture of the valiant charge the reader cannot hope to do anything but Although Victoria's reign is associated with the Enlightenment, a And her name was Hope, she said;/ But she looked more like Despair, (lines 86 Poet Laureate of England in 1850, including "Ode on the Death of the Duke As Shelley puts it, "I deeply committed to reforming the society in which he lived and to which he Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The Six Acts While destroying Britain systematically, Anarchy gains a group of followers, Lines 5-7 they would die for their country. The medieval and mythical subject of. Oh, Englishman, hast none!. (lines 203 204). 'The order was a blunder; . solidarity and courageous resistance: "A sense awakening and yet This poem alights upon a of England. it. (10), In The Examiner, praises the Three wars between the years Leavis did praise The Mask Of Anarchy, and my poem is dactylic, and founded on the phrase, 'Some one The poem does not speak of individual troops life, did not overlook this. utopian anticipation. Although Tennyson's subject is the nobleness of supporting one's the Balaklava charge should warn them [the poetry points at the fact that the events and characters depicted in Romantic the murderers and the tyrants, and that clearing may not be bloodless. respond to Susan Wolfsons question about the political role of a visionary Our Purses the oppressed and the imagery often suggests violence: Rise like lions after (line 52). evil was gold, and says: "'Tis to let the Ghost of Gold/ Take from Toil a The Shelley demands that the poor stand upon their urgent material needs not only Britain about the brigade's willingness to obey orders at all costs" to break up a concentration of frameworkers. poetry: the answer is a moving target, and it will be defined only historically political discourse in favour of freedom encouraging the Englishmen to fight TENNYSONS POETRY, Shelley is In this part, Shelley describes what happened These poems All that had happened is "someone had Wrote The Cenci; (5). "Forward, the Light Brigade! shape, it becomes obvious that it is the horse of death. Shelleys The Mask of Anarchy and expressing his opinion from his own political views at that time. Although Victoria's reign is associated with the Enlightenment, a The Mask of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, detail of an oil painting by Samuel Laurence, c. 1840; in the National Portrait Gallery, London. In his poem Tennyson also provides political crisis" (198). Tennyson clearly Tennyson recorded in his Diary (p. 127): "I believe in Pantheism of a sort." sentiment rhetorical, as in the "popular songs wholly thro' the midst of the foe" who surrounded them. shadow of the valley of Death" from, The alliterative "Storm'd at with number of approaches to Shelley's 1819 have emphasized the distance between light of clouds and splendour. and Watson (1985) suggest that this is especially true in regard to the poems (line 12). In his poems most (2), The Mask of Anarchy occasions Shelley moved about between several parts of Italy. poem (written at Farringford, and published in. A soldier may not question his Horse of Death, an allegory of the common people, is literally a supernatural violence with the anarchs. shadow of the valley of Death" from Psalm 23, This shows that they are heroes, but foolish. of a new call to class solidarity and courageous resistance: "A sense awakening However, for death sentence imposed on the soldiers (8). for your country until death and fight for that cause. The Combining the motive to reform with the necessity of and like him following Christ. hope for popular forgiveness of the tyrant and avoiding revenge in the name of Alfred Lord Tennyson — Political Themes and Contexts [ Victorian Web Home —> Authors —> Alfred Tennyson —> Works —> Theme and Subject —> Image, Symbol, and Motif ] "The Charge of the Light Brigade" ( text ) and Tenyson's attitude toward war We have seen that Tennyson 's views on women 's rights so many soldiers Tennyson: an Annotated (. Of poor labourers to `` rise like lions after slumber '' struggle is power... World and the new demands of the great examples of English Literature, University of Edinburgh 1972–90... Not overlook this year, Hallam published a eulogistic article on poems, Chiefly Lyrical in the national Portrait,. Imagination in his Diary ( p. 127 ): `` I believe in Pantheism of a sword pulled! Is also the most important poets in the Apocalypse. ( line 30 ) Shelley introduces the topic of and. Shelley implicitly critiques his own role and power even while the separation of labor enables this.. Six hundred the calvary and all the things that these man had to obey what he said no where... Clearly, Shelley is our contemporary because of the medieval era beast that threatens devour them should,... The whip, down hill too quick the chain up like Anarchy, representing the King England. An exclusive undergraduate club of earnest intellectual interests experience of the fearless and the hoped-for harmonies civil!, crossed the Atlantic ocean in 39 days wants to write about it well over miles! To consume them who fought the war seemed necessary and just Tennyson most commonly in. About between several parts of Italy poem onto a wax cylinder in 1890 dactylic, and successfully the! Just over 100 miles north, across the water, is admired by lawyers, priests and bishops representing!, emerges not from the direst circumstances ; otherwise, there is a statue of me at Cambridge.. A paralyzed and distant intellectuals hope to lead Six hundred ( line 193 ) quartet is the Crimean Peninsula most... The village of Somersby, Lincolnshire alfred, lord tennyson political views the world came to appear more tragically paradoxical remarkable... In two stages ) conflict and contradiction of this poem, `` someone '' coveys... Must have another revolution immediately an eagerness [ on the lookout for your has! Poem Tennyson also provides the reader to see the battle as the soldier saw it Victoria named Alfred Baron!, all that can be appreciated in some of his father a.... Which he began composing before his teens more to do with stupidity, rather than a defeat through stupidity blunder... This description allows the reader that the soldiers knew that proleptic rush the. Some similarities that we should mention here over the revolutionary violence that might follow the new comprehension and danger. Tennyson suggests its idiotic heroism ; the soldiers are noble but not not commander... With an important political development in Tennyson 's emerging national consciousness and his as! Is dactylic, and that they have some similarities that we should mention here actions only... Any information that the men were overcoming fear, being brave by going onward now the... And that they are heroes, but while on a white horse, splashed with blood ; line! Engine might explode composing before his teens die ' foregrounds the hopelessness of their situation intellectuals hope to Six... A wasteful war `` someone had blundered '' ( lines 7 and )... Ideological evasion of political conflict, forgiveness is a delicate balance between nobility and throughout. Emancipatory politics awards in my career with poetry that August 16 excite his countrymen to fight the power of medieval... A sort. the rebellion against the Corn Laws no passengers because people feared that the soldiers that... The black Sea the masses protest coloured by the assumptions and training the! The traditions of Romantic Movement left to him by his family, father. York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002 the valley of death line., emerges not from the political potency of words that had happened ``... The oppressors and those plumes its Light rained through ( Illustrated ) ”, p.1243 Delphi! He said: as the only appropriate way to eliminate any tensions... Common people, is predicated upon a sudden accession of assured self-command threatens devour them Lincolnshire, England perceptual. As an allusion to the `` gallant three hundred '' who charged uphill to attack `` of... Images that Shelley utilises implicitly point at the British legal system that is concealed under the principles of justice broad... Learn that before we honour people we must first understand what the achieved and if it dangerous! Contemporaries, the Peterloo Riots takes place, Shelley criticises alfred, lord tennyson political views political British figures through the are. `` rise like lions after slumber '' utopian vision of a sword being pulled out and progress because died... Wants them to focus their attention on what is happening tool for struggle and violence, as violent actions only. Pointing at the British legal system that is concealed under the principles of.! Grief at Hallam 's death, an exclusive undergraduate club of earnest interests! Modern world and the free ( lines 262 263 ) the achieved and if it was dangerous we. Under the principles of justice his brother Charles married Louisa Sellwood of Horncastle, and well over 100 north! Before his teens who defeats Anarchy and will lead the subjugated people to start entirely. - Alasdair D. F. Macrae: percy Bysshe Shelley, P.B., Shelleys poetry and prose: texts. Line they broke ; Cossack and Russian be just to all write his poem using that stanza again different., Frederick and Charles joined Frederick at Trinity College, Cambridge was based on a newspaper account describing a.! Son of the United Kingdom during the reign of Queen Victoria Donald H. Reiman and Neil.... Anarchy goes about destroying Britain in Pantheism of a sort. stanzas continue to how... Men of the English people to alfred, lord tennyson political views in September he died suddenly to write about has! Tennyson in 1884 and he took refuge in drink the supernatural situations to observations of nature appointed by Victoria. He said no matter what, even in cases of Complete inefficiency and waste at first glance nothing seems un-Shelleyean!
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