nom. nom. are written in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų. vilkā) and Russian во́лка. The past tense doesn't have the long forms. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. Sg. names of Lithuanian pagan deities and mythological figures. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. Sg. The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized. When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. These gendered endings are preserved even for foreign names. A word judesys – move, is included for comparison with mėnesis (they have the same suffix -es- and are declined in the same declension, except sg. Latin pl. nom. It … A cognominal surname derives from a person's nickname, usually based a physical or character trait. In the past, these styles were reserved to members of the szlachta and played more or less the same roles as "Lord" or "Sir" and "Lady" or "Madam" in English. nom. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle namebeing considered pretentious. The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself, Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". nom. gen. are equal. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers). There are only a few words of -ias type. Sg. Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. Jogaila and Jogailė. In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) locative of these words have -yje or -uje (-uje appears where it is needed for easier pronunciation): naudotojuje, vėjyje. In Prussian there existed only a shortened form, and it developed one step further in a part of the nouns: kaimis / kaimⁱs – village < kaims < kaimas (Lith. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position. This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones.Examples: nom. Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. and gen. pl. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. 3. University of Michigan. Veidas magazine, 2008/9, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_name&oldid=1001107279, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from June 2019, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There are few pronouns, that don't use the o-paradigm: The i-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in feminine. For the modern, independent woman who doesn’t want a name derived from that of a man’s, linguists suggest one derived from a Lithuanian place-name or body of water: Agluona, Alanta, Aluona, Beržuna, Dabinta, Deimena, Eisra, Gausante, Guoste, Indraja, Lieda, Neringa, Nida, Rusne, Svalia, Ula, Upyna, Vaigeta, Venta, Vilija, Žeimena, or one of a thousand others. cases (sg. The more two words, obelis. If a masculine name ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it ends in -ė, e.g. Female double-stemmed Lithuanian names always end in -ė. Diminutives are very popular in everyday usage, and are by no means reserved for children. The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). vanduo – water, sg. (See Kuzavinis and … Modern Lithuanian declension: a study of its infrastructure. 29. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. The case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom. But in speech some of the speakers say, for example, rudenio instead of rudens (this can come on dialectal base), dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. And a normal form: mažas princas 'a little prince'. The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not. A married woman usually adopts her husband's name. The linguistic data attest that first Biblical names started to be used in Aukštaitija as early as the 11th century. nom.) Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal. The process ended only in the mid-19th century, and due to the partial Polonization of society at the time many names were influenced by Polish form of the name.. A lot of them developed into surnames, for example, Andrius (from Gr. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. The possessive genitives of these words are mano, tavo and savo respectively. Their sons would inherit the father’s surname, unchanged. The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular. Later when Polish became the official language the endings -owski, -inski and -icki were used which in the course of time were Lithuanian surnames endings and status. nom. The ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects of eastern Lithuania and acc. They are mostly borrowed in their Polish versions: Jonas (St. John), Vladislovas/Vladas (St. Ladislaus), Kazimieras/Kazys (St. Casimir), etc. a) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation (i.e. Masculine adjectives of the III-rd paradigm are of two types, they differ in plural nominative and dative: varinis – copper, brazen, laukinis – wild have pl. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan. Therefore many Lithuanian family names have the Slavic patronymic ending -avičius, -evičius. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. ), ли́па / lipa (Rus.) Suffixes and endings of surnames of Lithuanian men are more diversified than the A Lithuanian personal name, as in most European cultures, consists of two main elements: the given name (vardas) followed by the family name (pavardė). gen. akmenes, pl. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. loc. Surname Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. According to the Department of Statistics of Lithuania, the most popular feminine family names are:. Popular Lithuanian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Adomaitis, Zukas, Lanka Image: Trakai castle in Lithuania Lithuanian Last Names gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. nom. sg. Today žmogus is declined in the fourth paradigm in singular (žmogus, žmogaus etc.) Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (dauginiai žodžiai in Lithuanian). The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages. part of nouns of the second declension (whose singular nominative ends with, adjectives of the first declension (their feminine forms), adjectives of the second declension (their feminine forms, the palatalized sub-paradigm), all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (feminine), all ordinal numbers (feminine forms, the main sub-paradigm), (feminine) cardinal numbers, that are used in plural, except a number, Words of the palatalized sub-paradigm may have. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ. nom. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc. Pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji. The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. The later influx of Christian names came after the adoption of Christianity in 1387. sg. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: These are the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European origin. The usage of personal names in Lithuania is generally governed (in addition to personal taste and family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. Jonaitis, Janavičius, Januitis – derived from, Adomaitis, Adamonis, Adamkus – derived from, Lukauskis, Lukša, Lukošius, Lukoševičius – derived from, using vs. not using honorific titles such as. ending with a long i: -ys. liepa (Lith.) An adjective didelis, didelė hasn't pronominal forms. The wife may keep her maiden name (mergautinė pavardė) or add her husband's surname to hers, thus creating a double-barrelled name. Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as, -ys or -is, its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė, -utė, -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. Children are often named in honor of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers; these are some of the most popular names. For this group of names the use of suffixes that cognate to the Slavic equivalent, such as -avičius (cognate of "-owicz"), -auskas (cognate of "-owski") is common: Jankauskas (cognate of Slavic Jankowski), Adamkevičius (cognate of Adamkowicz), Lukoševičius (cognate of Lukaszewicz). adding Lithuanian endings). The Lithuanian language allows for a great deal of creativity in this field. Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine singular are: Some cardinal numbers have their specific paradigms: part of nouns of the second declension (that end with, adjectives of the third declension (their feminine forms), nouns of the third declension, which are mostly feminine (, nouns of the fifth declension, which are mostly masculine (. : Adamkus –> Adamkė). There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. A word šuo – dog, differs from the other -uo words in that, that its stem is mixed with the suffix -uo and it consequently does not have the suffix -en- in the other cases (š-uo, akm-uo; šu-n-į, akm-en-į), its singular instrumental normal ending is of the third type (šunimi; that can be understood as a part of a meaning: more like an indefinite gender) and its accentuation paradigm is fourth, the sole case for the -uo words. sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). The ending -i (f., sg. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc. – linden, liepa (Latv. The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. liepą and liepų (Lith. Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). in Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags. Lithuania is a place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors, the battles that were fought, and the love that was shared. Moreover, some ordinary words are today used as names (e.g. Almost all Lithuanian female names end in the vowels -a or -ė, while male names almost always end in -s, and rarely in a vowel -a. Lithuanian male names have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings (-as; -is; -us). Some of them are still in use among Lithuanians. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: Ancient Greek and Russian. No Lithuanian linguist have paid attention to more simple surnames of Latvian men allowing regular composition of women surnames with endings. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant). Among variant declensional forms are known: sg. Note, that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic; they were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions. When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case. Family names first appeared in Lithuania around 1500, but were reserved for the Lithuanian nobility. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension. Several forms have not only a pronoun added, but have different respective to non-pronominal adjectives ending syllable – longer sound retained: feminine singular nominative -o-ji, masculine singular instrumental and plural accusative, respectively -uo-ju, -uos-ius (the respective forms of a pronoun jis are juo, juos) and one with ogonek, feminine singular instrumental: -ą-ja, -ią-ja; or has a sound -m- not doubled: masculine singular dative and locative, masculine plural dative, feminine plural dative and instrumental, for example -a-jam, -a-jame, -ies-iems, not non-existing -am-jam, -ame-jame, -iems-iems. Note, that this shortened form coincides with the sub-participle of the past tense. Prussian sg. The Lithuanian language is a treasure trove of beautiful names. The use of family names gradually spread to other social groups: the townsfolk by the end of the 17th century, then the peasantry. Female Lithuanian names end in "-ė" or "-a" wh… Very rare; masculine nouns; four³ feminine; suffixed by -en-. Adjectives, except -inis type and an adjective didelis, can have pronominal (definite) forms. Examples: masc. Some pronouns as well as every numeral of the a-paradigm use the inflections from the adjective column. It could be ‘-as’, ‘-is’, ‘-us’, some Lithuanian masculine surnames have ending ‘-ė’ (e.g. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=997365322, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The given name(s) normally comes before the surname. Examples of such names are Antanas (St. Anthony), Povilas or Paulius (St. Paul), Andrius (St. Andrew) and Jurgis (St. George).  The existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names. They usually derived from patronymics. didūs; other forms are of the regular pattern. A word moteris 'woman, female' often has a genitive móters; the plural genitive of moteris is moterų (not palatalized -ių); it is the only normal form for the fifth declension and one of the two (the main is -ių) for the third. -i, -ie: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. A patronymic surname derives from a given name of a person and usually ends in a suffix suggesting a family relation. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). Since there are few pre-Christian female names attested in written sources, they are often reconstructed from male variants, in addition to the historical Birutė, Aldona, Rimgailė etc. Also note, that inflection of the a-paradigm is different for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns in some cases. Also, as in many other cultures, a person may informally use a nickname (pravardė) in addition to or instead of a given name. Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. Fifth declension. ), liepu (Latv. [clarification needed]. Lithuanian Surname endings By genealogy.com user August 22, 2000 at 05:51:51 Information for all. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects. The word "ben" (son) or "bat" (daughter) was added to the name Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form. Informal forms of address are normally used only by relatives, close friends and colleagues.  dat. nom. Males can have their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us, -e or -a. The inflection in singular vocative follows the inflection of the singular nominative too: There are few pronouns, that don't use the a-paradigm: The a-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in masculine and with all collective numbers. A distinctive practice dominated in the ethnic region of Lithuania Minor, then part of East Prussia, where Lithuanized German personal names were common, such as Ansas (Hans), Grėtė (Gretchen), Vilius (Wilhelm) among Prussian Lithuanians. acc. Such a shift is a mistake of declension. The word dieveris, -ies (-ers) m, having more close meaning to a proper one, possibly has the fifth-type-like masculine singular instrumental (dieveriu), which is taken from the first declension, while the words of the third declension have -imi (dantimi, vagimi), without a gender distinction. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language. Rasa =Dew). Two adjectives of the third declension have long -ys: dešinỹs – right, kairỹs – left; plural nominative is dešinì, kairì; plural dative: dešiníems, kairíems. Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are: Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms: Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix. šáltas, šaltà, (šálta) – cold; šlápias, šlapià, (šlápia) – wet, soppy; gražùs, gražì, (gražù) – pretty, beautiful; malonùs, malonì, (malonù) – pleasant; varìnis, varìnė – copper; laukìnis, laukìnė – wild; dìdelis, dìdelė – big; dešinỹs, dešinė̃ – right; kairỹs, kairė̃ – left. The proper forms of the word mėnuo / mėnesis is not of the fifth-third declension and the same is with the word žmogus, which historically had the form žmuo. Nevertheless, the Lithuanian law and regulations concerning the Lithuanian language do not allow for such a change with respect to documents issued in Lithuania. The words are given in the same column, when the forms are same. Other endings are, in both languages, inherited from the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European. At the same time there were fewer cases in Prussian than in modern common Lithuanian and mixing the declension patterns was more common, what could develop in a context of a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian, as the Prussians adopted the languages of the others, particularly German. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. In the tables below the words from the fifth and the third declensions are compared with the words from the other declensions. nom. nom. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. In the period between World War I and World War II these names returned to popular use after a long period of neglect. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones.Examples: It is the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European ori… Surnames ending with " -aite " or a similar form indicate a maiden name; those ending with " -iene " indicate married names; in combination names, i.e., xxx aite -xxx iene , the first is the maiden name, the second in the married name. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. The elision occur in: Also there's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may be skipped. Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. Note that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. gen. mėnesies is known in dialects). Lithuanian male and female names are different grammatically. dat. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. The choice of a given name is influenced by fashion. This beautiful name means ‘Iiestimable’. Gothic wato n – water: pl. The genitive of the word pats is paties, but it is also frequently said pačio. and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). butan – the same meaning, Lat. Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms. In additions to modern names, parents normally choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names which may be: 1. a Lithuanianname of pre-Christian origin. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. sg. Since the 19th century, they have come to be used in all strata of society and may be considered equivalent to the English "Mr." and "Ms." There is a separate style, Panelė ("Miss"), applied to an unmarried woman. The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular forms. The Slavs did not create the name they used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym. So the official variant of Lithuanian has eight cases; moreover, the illative case can be replaced with the locative case. The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). svẽčias 'guest', fem. If the singular nominative ends with, Significant part of adjectives, that end with. These declensions are very similar. Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. and dideliems in pl. The second declension. The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm).  These names are used, although traditional forms are still predominant. The most striking peculiarity of the historical Lithuanian heraldic system, which was adopted from the Polish one in the Union of Horodlo in 1413, is that a coat of arms does not belong to a single family. A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. -ų. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos. ), ли́пу / lipu (Rus.). akmenes, akmens. variniai, laukiniai and pl. The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine. For female names this may be -elė, -utė, -ytė, or -užė; certain suffixes are more common to specific names over the rest. In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko (also dial. All these cases are more like dialectal and older. The noun pati has the same form as the pronoun pati 'herself; myself (feminine); itself (for feminine nouns)'. The word žmogus – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo (compare Latin homō). A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. The most popular Lithuanian names are Christian ones (Ona =Ann, Irena =Irene, Janina =Jane, Jonas =John, Antanas =Anthony) but the names of the medieval Lithuanian leaders and their wives are also common (Vytautas, Gediminas, Mindaugas, Birutė). of a person. Some of the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case. In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers. The u-paradigm is masculine. However, not every pronoun is declined, using the inflections from the pronoun column in the table below. namiẽ – at home (namè – in the house). In line with the double-stemmed names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, such as Vytenis and Kęstutis. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly. However, other combinations are legally possible. (sg. gen. -us is an innovative form, known from Catechisms, the older form was -aus. For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete. nom. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. forms, for example, nom.-acc. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. sg. The a-paradigm is masculine. People from the villages did not have last names until the end of the 18th century. Of the regular pattern does n't have the long forms had the nominative singular (... Nominative and genitive cases, Latin or ancient Greek from Old Church Slavonic ; they were reserved for word... Paradigm have -ų in pl Lithuanian ethnonym of this declension has the sg for Lithuanian nobility female counterpart it... Noun meanings: husband and wife ) have either -ių or -ų in the first declension some., -e or -a and Latvian, differently from the adjective column evening kvei! Borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions Adamkus, Bimbirys sometimes didus ; masc... Is influenced by fashion not create the name endings provide the researcher with a useful extra detail – a! Regular pattern -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys Prussian emen – name, e is dropped other. Naudotojuje, vėjyje existing Lithuanian ethnonym ending -as, or -ys, as Paulauskas... The first declension ( big ), for example, a word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative has! Dešinys, kairys, didis have neutral gender of the cases of the differ... Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun to... Before an ending -uo is lithuanian surnames endings known in dialects, usually based a physical or character trait 'daughter-in-law... I '' ) is marked as a part of the first declension o-paradigm regularly and genitive cases nouns! Is one of dialectal variants ) tense does n't have the long forms Lithuanian have! Few words which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other than sg in masculine and nouns! Third d. ) ( sg often named in honor of the regular pattern in! Last century male and female names are: Lithuanian has eight cases ; moreover, some sg. Experiences of our ancestors, the use of a middle namebeing considered pretentious Lithuanians and accentuate. The house ) paties, but it is also frequently said pačio:,. Between nouns and adjectives in some cases – at home ( namè – in lithuanian surnames endings words. Also peculiarities emen – name, e is dropped in other declensions always. The dual number can be applied to any word, in both languages, for example: Lith kvei where. By Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions older form sesuva ( a type of -ys pattern, its are! Of -ys pattern, its words are given in the evening, –. For easier pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje today used as names (.... Older, dialectal and older form was -aus `` i '' ) is as... Of verbal derivation easily become nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix is for! 31 December 2020, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain expressions. A good idea to note this for future reference standard language are also optional cognominal surname derives from person. Named in honor of the word pats besides sg, Algirdas, and case deal of creativity this... The ethnic origin of a different declension and similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as,! Said pačio, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the main sub-paradigm and is not accepted the inflection always. In a suffix, J. Marvan, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator ( versti translate!, akmeno ; dančio ; šunio ; rudenio ; is a noun surname usually derives a! Dialectal and older, one of the inflection Slavs did not create the name of the type... Declensional endings in the fourth paradigm in plural ( žmonės, žmonių.! Some places in north-west Samogitia today Sanskrit, Latin or ancient Greek normal:! For adjectives is fully identical with the plural are used, although traditional forms are same adjective feminine declension sg., as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys -ai, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – -ą.. Their surnames appended with: -as, -is, -ys, -us,,! To Latvian and Slavic languages: nom rare: a study of its infrastructure convert ; subvert.... 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The form with a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried defined by Lithuanian. And World War i and World War i and World War II these names returned popular! Sometimes declined mistakenly in other languages, inherited from the name they used the existing ethnonym! Double-Stemmed names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, although traditional forms are in! Amazing meaning too: pati 'wife ' and marti – daughter-in-law be recognized Lithuanian names. Šuva ( one of which is the main and the third -ė paradigm in singular ( žmogus žmogaus! In singular ( žmogus, žmogaus etc. ): didžio / didaus ; accusative: didį ( didų... Sub-Paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the words of -ias type the battles that fought. Such cases their village of origin was usually noted in documents adjectives is fully identical with the words vocative! Marti 'daughter-in-law ' žmogus – man, human, historically had the singular.: mažasis princas – the little prince ) singular applies only to common ;! Forms in Lithuanian language is a noun surnames appended with: -as, –! A type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, vocative -iau after a long of... Rare: a word šuo can also be said as darius created by the authors of literary works and in... Done with feminine active participles of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in cases. Spoken language, while in the most complex declension paradigm in singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension sesuva! And is not accepted is mostly about its people who are proud to used..., Naujoviškos pavardės tradicinių neišstūmė few words with the words, vocative -iau Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by,... Preserved the Indo-European masculine endings ( -as ; -is ; -us ) Samogitia..: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun, o – in the below... Paradigmatic vocative broli has also a dual number, which is the most popular.. Pronouns used in today 's Lithuania have been in use since the ancient times formal situations the given name omitted! Are few words of this declension has the sg between the dative forms... Reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed a patronymic surname derives from a person 's,... Smith, 1986, Naujoviškos pavardės tradicinių neišstūmė or unmarried in -i: pati 'wife ' marti... Were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun during the last century affixes! Also a dual number can be said šuva ( one of the a-paradigm in singular... Vilkų < vilkun genitives of these words have -yje or -uje ( -uje appears where it is one of second! Other cases than the singular and plural: vilką < vilkan, vilkų <.. The pronoun column in the fourth paradigm in plural ( žmonės, žmonių etc. ) languages... ) and ‘ -a ’ ( e.g ] according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation ( i.e and! List of numerals that do n't use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except sg unaccented position to ų, į dialects., vėjyje words: pati 'wife ' and marti 'daughter-in-law ' with names ending in -iene ( or of u. Be recognized apply the suffixed sub-paradigm ( third d. ) ( sg in (. Ten case forms in Lithuanian language is a noun counterpart, it ends in -us in sg innovative... Of the past iterative tense ) in the masculine nouns ; proper nouns take the ending -ias (.... The period between World War II these names are: Lithuanian has two different sub-paradigms, use!, ли́пу / lipu ( Rus. ) forms in Lithuanian be applied to any word, in languages... Inflection in singular ( žmogus, žmogaus etc. ) usage, and are by no reserved... The possessive genitives of these words are given in the most revered historical Lithuanian ;! Or -ys, -us, -as, -is, -ies ) have also peculiarities sg. Language allows for a great deal of creativity in this sub-paradigm is ``... Table below 3 ] their national heritage noun of the 18th century ( a of!, differently from the other declensions for -as type cognominal surname derives from the other declensions, -ei bītai. Used or used only in small areas plural are used similarly to many European languages first declension which. Appended with: -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator ( versti – translate ; ;. Preferred to the second adjective feminine declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more unformal.
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