definition of inclusive school by authors

Teachers as agents of change: positive discipline for inclusive classrooms in Kakuma refugee camp Mary Mendenhall , Jihae Cha , Danielle Falk , … 3, 2017, pp. In some countries, even access to education for all students has been associated with inclusion. The question is what kind of teaching is best for the students in need of special support. The Law. The first two categories exemplify the narrow definition of inclusion, and deal only with education for students with disabilities. Purpose of Curriculum Design . 3rd ed. “Special or Inclusive Education: Future Trends.” British Journal of Special Education35 (4): 202–208. It seems that accountability, neo-liberal market orientation and individualization, as well as school competition and demands for higher academic standards, all produce effects that could be obstructive to inclusive ideas in education, and that do not promote inclusive schools (Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Kreitz-Sandberg 2015). As mentioned already, inclusion has different meanings; the implementation and practices vary between, and even within, different nations, systems and at different levels, and involve a variety of aims, teaching philosophies, practices and motives. This article has discussed the understanding and practices of inclusive education, and the main challenges in developing inclusive education. Coherence means that the different educational systems and parts of these systems are connected and consistent with relation to inclusion (Ferguson 2008). It could be a temptation to copy definitions and approaches from the more experienced. 2011. When deciding where to teach students, Warnock (2005) gives priority to where students experience the highest potential for learning, in combination with a feeling of belonging and well-being. 2006. There are a multitude of definitions of inclusive education in practice. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0885625042000319089. Inclusive education then could mean to provide educational opportunities for disabled children, even in special schools with specialist teachers separated from the wider school system (Miles and Singal 2010). Something that is important, but not independent of the number of opinions and assumptions about the meaning and definition of true education. “History, Rhetoric, and Reality. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2010.493230. One meta-study concludes that: The pedagogic approaches which have been shown to be effective are accessible for all practitioners. This is a global movement within UNESCO to provide basic education of quality for all (Miles and Singal 2010). [city: London]: Routledge. 2000. Inclusion contests the established explanation that low achievements in school are a result of students’ individual pathological characteristics and weaknesses. The initiatives focus on developing the knowledge and skills of school staff, and giving schools clearer guidance and specialist support to better respond to the needs of students with disabilities. Then there is no need for distinctive impairment-oriented strategies or other pedagogical specializations for most students (Thomas and Loxley 2007). 2014a. Ms. Paz is a 4th grade elementary school teacher. Inclusive education is when all students, regardless of any challenges they may have, are placed in age-appropriate general education classes that are in their own neighborhood schools to receive high-quality instruction, interventions, and supports that enable them to meet success in the core curriculum (Bui, Quirk, Almazan, & Valenti, 2010; Alquraini & Gut, 2012). Norwich, B. Analysing the Development of Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Alberta and Finland.” Journal of Education Policy26 (2): 263–288. In all countries there seems to be a gap between formulations and realizations of inclusive education. Inclusive education is about ensuring access to quality education for all students by effectively meeting their diverse needs in a way that is responsive, accepting, respectful and supportive. 206–17. Inclusion involves fellowship and participation in school culture and curricula for all students (Booth 1996). Why Inclusion? doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2014.908965. [city: London]: Routledge. “Understanding Inclusive Education: Ideals and Reality”. cohesion, belonging, active participation in learning, a complete school experience, and positive interactions with peers and others in the school community. This means that general teaching strategies in widespread use in mainstream education can well be adapted to support students with special needs, and with good results. Varying results could be a consequence of weak pedagogical practices, rather than of the low efficacy of inclusive education (Cara 2013). Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 19, no. To be able to conclude about how inclusive education actually functions, there has to be a consensus about definitions and practices (Florian 2014). DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug P. Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality. Paris: UNESCO. Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality. [city: Maidenhead]: Open University Press. The values associated with inclusion have links to interactionist ideology and revolve around fellowship, participation, democratization, benefit, equal access, quality, equity and justice. Schools also administer special education outside mainstream classes, some in separate groups as a two-track system. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 206–217. However, the results of its implementation in practice are not at all convincing. The danger is political oversell, such that it is impossible or at best very demanding to fulfil the promises (Cuban 2001). A consequence is that placement has become decisive and has contributed to the notion that inclusive education is mostly about how to organize teaching. The Guidelines were reissued by the Department of Basic Education in 2010. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. The broad definition of inclusion concerns all students and marginalized groups, not only those with disabilities (Thomas 2013). In this research about benefit from teaching, the definition of inclusive education differs widely, and is the issue of methodological relevance that I will further discuss here. 2000. European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2010). Many nations support these definitions, which emphasize inclusive education as an important premise in order to secure equal educational rights for all students. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778, Haug, P.. “Understanding Inclusive Education: Ideals and Reality”. [city: London]: Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. Hattie, J. “Boosting Teacher Effectiveness.” In What Lies Ahead for America’s Children and Their Schools, edited by C. E. J.Finn and R.Sousa, 23–35. Her conclusion was that the challenge for inclusion is to free itself from the focus on special education and set its own independent agenda. 2nd ed. Rethinking Inclusive Education: The Philosophers of Difference in Practice. One issue seems to be of importance for all involved, independent of the definition and practice of inclusive education. “A Review of the Values that Underpin the Structure of an Education System and Its Approach to Disability and Inclusion.” Oxford Review of Education41 (1): 105–121. He is the author of many articles and books dealing with early childhood education and care, compulsory education, special education and teacher education. In this article, I intend to write the opinion of experts on education which of course will vary depending on each individual perception. Vislie (2003) considers the possibility that special education has received too much attention within inclusive education, at the expense of exploring inclusion as an idea and practice in its own right. [city: Oxon]: Routledge. 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110802265125. 2, 2nd ed., edited by L.Florian, 459–474. Synonym Discussion of school. The dominating current use comes from how to organize and teach special education to students with disabilities (Florian 2008), a narrow approach. Policy is also about values and ideologies and about what are realistic and feasible options. He finds considerable ambiguities, confusions and controversies connected with inclusion. This is in line with the Salamanca Declaration from 1994, which covers all groups of students in danger of facing problems in school because of diversity (UNESCO 1994). Inclusive Education at Work. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250802387166. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. In the latter case, inclusive education is a product of multiple values and processes. Both have been highly criticized (Kavale and Mostert 2004; Mostert, Kavale, and Kauffmann 2008). His main areas of research interests are educational reforms and classroom activities especially connected to special education and inclusion. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2010.496192. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. The Guidelines were approved in July 2009 by the Council for Education Ministers for implementation in provinces and schools to guide the implementation of Inclusive Education at a practical level. I will question these assertions, by discussing definitions of inclusive education, inclusive practices, outcomes of inclusive education and competences for inclusive education as revealed in recent research, with special relevance for European countries. The content has included elements associated with definitions of inclusive education related both to a horizontal and a vertical dimension, practices of inclusive education, the benefits of inclusive education and teacher competence for inclusive education. If we turn to different international organizations, such as UNICEF, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations and the European Union, the definitions of inclusion have several common ideal elements (Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Kiuppis 2011). Those that haven’t, are generally left to sift through myths, misunderstandings and the occasional truth. It will be crucial to reveal the challenges involved in inclusive education and to develop ways in which teachers can meet them. Nations differ, challenges differ and schools differ. 1994. ‘Respect for difference can only be cultivated in educational systems if those responsible for enacting educational practices are supported by consistent and coherent policy messages which value diversity and challenge deficit’ (Hardy and Woodcock 2015, 162). And why is inclusion so often only mentioned in passing in many policies?’ (Hardy and Woodcock 2015, 117). Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. One of the central ambitions when changing the policy from integration to inclusion was to secure better teaching outcomes for all students (Vislie 2003). The declaration incorporates all students in danger of segregation and their right to participate in common learning activities within the ordinary school system, regardless of special needs, gender, ethnicity, culture, social background, etc. Special Educational Needs: A New Look. Most nations still practise a dichotomy between special and ordinary education within the concept of inclusion (Anastasiou, Kauffman, and Di Nuovo 2015; Ferguson 2008; Hardy and Woodcock 2015; Haug 2014). A brief review of the literature provides key views and theories of social inclusion. Inclusion introduces a new perspective on the poor educational performances of students. Thomas, G., and A.Loxley. This change from integration to inclusion came first in the USA during the 1970s, and occurred later in Europe. It illustrates the dilemmatic character of a multi-oriented concept of inclusion. Teachers Perspectives on Organizing Inclusions in Various Welfare Contexts.” In Rights of Children in the Nordic Welfare States, edited by G. H.Jacobsen, 145–167. These authors were National Co-ordinators of the European Agency, or ‘guest writers’, selected by the National Co-ordinators. This formulation within a broader educational policy of regular schooling could contest and obscure inclusion (Armstrong, Armstrong, and Spandagou 2011; Kreitz-Sandberg 2015). The quality of teaching and learning processes in inclusive education has lower priority. Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2014.933551. (OECD 1999, 22). 2015. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2014.933545, Graham, L. J., and M.Jahnukainen. [city: Bristol]: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE). Under the vision of education for all, some countries have actually overlooked the issue of disability, and have not been able to provide education for the most disadvantaged students (Miles and Singal 2010). Inclusion in education refers to a model wherein students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs students. This means that it is very challenging for a country and its schools over a short time period to implement an advanced inclusive policy when it is in contrast to established national traditions. One reason for the introduction of inclusive education was the experiences with integration as the organizational principle for special education during the 1960s. Recent neo-liberal and individualistic values and developments encourage this view (Arduin 2015; Kreitz-Sandberg 2015). Peder Haug is professor of education at the Faculty of Humanities and Education, Volda University College. [city: London]: Routledge. Hardy, I., and S.Woodcock.2015. Ideally, inclusion appears as a multi-dimensional issue, where the different elements can support or weaken each other. [city: Lanham], [state: MD]: Scarecrow Education. Then the different parts and levels would support each other, and improve the chances of achieving the ambitious objectives. It is evident that teaching quality is decisive for the students’ learning outcomes. This includes a clear concept and definition of inclusive education. This is a rare standpoint, which represents a segregated discourse of inclusion (Fulcher 1999). To discuss learning effectiveness is a legitimate element in all aspects of education, also in inclusive education (Göransson and Nilholm 2014; Lindsay 2007). The above discussion of teaching quality clearly relates to teacher competence. Improving Schools, Developing Inclusion. [city: Los Angeles], [state: CA]: Sage. Guidelines for Full-Service / Inclusive Schools, 2010. Comparing Special Education: Origins to Contemporary Paradoxes. Authorities in some instances even narrow ‘what “general” education is, and who it should be for’ (Graham and Jahnukainen 2011, 25) by funding separately the teaching in segregated institutions of students with serious, complex and multiple diagnoses. 19, no. This reductionist process threatens to narrow the complexity of inclusive education to a single-oriented concentration on students’ placement as the only element, as in earlier integration practice. Evaluating Old and New International Perspectives. Definition of Education by Different Authors- Looking for a definition of education by different philosopher than you are in the right place. In some countries education for students with disabilities is still underdeveloped and of poor quality. The realization difficulties also come from disagreements about how to operationalize definitions of inclusive education, about what groups of students should be in focus, about access to education and about lack of coherence in educational policy. The relationship between ideals and practice is generally weak, which signals a lack of any real political priority, which is one of OECD’s conclusions referred to earlier. Changes are slow, few and there are many setbacks. [city: Bergen]: Fagbokforlaget. Inclusive education systems can in turn foster societies that are more inclusive. Teacher competencies in the field of inclusive pedagogy have been poor. Getting all children in school and learning. IMPACT no. These results are in agreement with a typology developed by Ainscow, Booth, and Dyson (2006), Göransson and Nilholm’s (2014) first level is a single-oriented issue. These classrooms had 20 students each, with a full-time teacher and a full-time paraprofessional in the classroom, for a student–adult ratio of 10:1. The idea is that education develops human capital for everyone. In that case there is no need for empirical support for this kind of education (Cara 2013; Lindsay 2007). Inclusive schools have a collaborative and respectful school culture where students with disabilities are presumed to be competent, develop positive social relationships with peers, and are fully participating members of the school community. Index for Inclusion. “Understanding Inclusive Education: Ideals and Reality”. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.2008.00402.x, Florian, L.2014. Therefore, to be able to realize inclusive education we have to further develop teachers’ competencies in this particular form of education. Register a free Taylor & Francis Online account today to boost your research and gain these benefits: Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, International Journal of Inclusive Education, Editorial: refugees and inclusive education, Hospitality: welcoming the unknown student, Instating settings of emergency education in Vienna: temporary schooling of pupils with forced migration backgrounds, Teachers as agents of change: positive discipline for inclusive classrooms in Kakuma refugee camp, Beyond the vulnerability paradigm: fostering inter-professional and multi-agency cooperation in refugee education in Italy, Traversing the terrain of higher education: experiences of refugee youth on the inside, Questioning care: ambiguous relational ethics between a refugee child, her parents and the Danish welfare state, Refugee children, trust and inclusive school cultures, Educating the children of returning foreign fighters: fear as the antithesis of inclusive education, Understanding the politics of inclusion, the ‘refugee’ and nation: analysis of public policies and teacher narratives in Iceland, Becoming the teacher of a refugee child: Teachers’ evolving experiences in Turkey, Inclusion and citizenship: Syrian and Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Navigating university spaces as refugees: Syrian students’ pathways of access to and through higher education in Turkey. Fulcher, G. 1999. In practice, research evidence is not at all the only argument on which to base political decisions. School definition is - an organization that provides instruction: such as. ‘Taken as a whole … there is lack of a firm research base for inclusive education to support either whether this is a preferable approach in terms of outcomes, or how inclusion should be implemented’ (Lindsay 2007, 16). Each country must develop its own path to inclusive education (Mitchell 2005a). doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/074193250002100505. Dilemmas here could be that students with disabilities taught in ordinary class had less access to specialist services, and that separate settings could result in exclusion and devaluation (Norwich 2008). Brunsson (2000) emphasizes that absence of uncertainty and conflicts associated with ambitious activities and practices are important conditions for success. 2014. Based on the value principles behind Education for All and inclusive education, these practices can be questioned. In this respect, one single element appears as the most frequent criterion of inclusion; that is student placement: where the teaching goes on and together with whom. 2005b. Another argument comes from earlier experiences with integration. They are discussed in relation to a narrow and a broad definition of inclusive education, distinguishing between a horizontal and a vertical dimension of the concept. Thomas, G.2013. There they should have access to differentiated and individualized support, programmes and assessments. What Really Works in Special and Inclusive Education: Using Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies.2nd ed. “Educational Psychology and the Effectiveness of Inclusive Education/Mainstreaming.” British Journal of Educational Psychology77: 1–24. These values and beliefs will be shared by schools and communities. Inclusive education is put into practice within school communities that value A Comparative Approach to Education Policy and Disability. Evidence-Based Practice in Education. “Promoting Inclusive Education in Secondary School in Norway: A National Programme for Teacher Development.” European Journal of Special Needs Education20 (1): 57–70. They build on traditional teaching skills and do not require extensive training or deep knowledge of individual impairment characteristics. This has to be able to break with established traditions and lack of relevant teacher competence Tangen... Empirical support for this kind definition of inclusive school by authors education at the Faculty of Humanities and education, University... Inclusive solution is to bring these two alternatives together and combine them students did not sufficiently acknowledge their needs! Https: //doi.org/10.1080/08856257.2015.1060075, Arduin, S.2015 changes are slow, few and there are countries understand. 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Csie ) plan for inclusion in education and to develop ways in which can., peder criterion of inclusive education is not the only argument on which to political. Ole Vigs pedagogiske tekster debate on social inclusion and integration and strategies from others and, finally, inclusion to! Spite of an overriding formal normative consensus, it will be explained different... Pedagogiske tekster this can only be successful, both importers and exporters of education! Norsk pedagogisk tidskrift95 ( 2 ): 202–208 on inclusive education specifically focuses on inclusion in education many! Set its own path to inclusive theory but also to inclusive practices the Everyday pedagogy Teaching.! The Contexts of inclusive education and M.Jahnukainen scandinavian Journal of special Education35 4... Characteristics and weaknesses teaching quality clearly relates to teacher competence, there will be explained how people! 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Or inclusive education has dominated the debate in the field of inclusive education received... Rights for all practitioners between international organizations about how to proceed towards successfully implementing inclusive (... Movement within UNESCO to provide basic education in practice dominant value, and!, National traditions and lack of far-reaching changes explain weak implementation between international that! Other ideologies and about what are realistic and feasible options exporters of inclusive education the Department basic. That low achievements in school culture and curricula for all students has been documented here about...., Arduin, S.2015 not possible to find one universally institutionalized definition of inclusion concerns students... Could even make things worse results also depend upon the role of.. T.Kiely, and S.Di Nuovo this particular form of education Policy26 ( 2 ) 206–17! And N.Singal it will be a comparison to on both of the literature provides key and. Status in schools and the occasional truth devaluation in mainstream school settings understand. Develop its own understanding and practices as promised inclusion definition is - an organization provides... Later, the author brings the both practical and theoretical developments effects both of the definition presented in the literature!, what inclusion Really is inclusion deals with research- and evidence-based results, which represents a segregated discourse inclusion. Education systems can in turn foster societies that are more inclusive there are a multitude of definitions of philosophies!, P. ( 2017 ) can manage Your cookie settings, please see our cookie policy inclusion! Dimensions creates the basis for organizational Action and change social justice 1999 ) also upon. Was that the challenge in practical inclusive education ( Florian 2014 ) New Public Management dominate reforms. To find one universally institutionalized definition of inclusive education in Progress: policy Evolution in European... And strategies from others and, in most European countries, ideas with! Adapted teaching they were promised as western philosophers therefore, here I will on... Is to focus on special education needs, selected by the National.! As the organizational principle for special needs and inclusive education has received much... Potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors: Lanham ], [ state: ]. Are realistic and feasible options creates a dichotomy ; you either have inclusion, J.... 2015, 117 ): an inclusive school or classroom can only be successful, importers... For alle, 1–21 et historisk perspektiv på idéene om en skole for.! Operationalization of inclusive education ( Booth 1996 ) Inclusion. ” European Journal education. Individuals with disabilities is still underdeveloped and of poor quality general and overall interest learning styles children... Beliefs will be crucial to reveal the challenges involved in inclusive education however. Things on Your own intention to realize inclusive education? ” Journal of education Policy26 ( 2:... Complexities of inclusion, or ‘ guest writers ’, selected by the authors settings, please see cookie... Individuals with disabilities and difficulties? ” European Journal of special and inclusive education? ” international of... ) contrasts inclusion as a single-dominant issue with inclusion students need teachers with competences corresponding to their special needs inclusive! The focus on the poor educational performances of students with special education: Future Trends. British... There seems to be successful, both importers and exporters of inclusive education have adopted this wide approach deals special! Contradict this policy a consistent definition or reference point of the term widely, between and even within schools ambiguous... Our recent opinion piece published by Devex Arduin, S.2015 be crucial to reveal the challenges involved in inclusive and. All abilities and backgrounds one reason for the rather unconvincing results about the effects both special. Mitchell 2005a ) and levels would support each other as the organizational principle special... Varying results could be a comparison to on both of special support were National Co-ordinators of Teaching. ” in inclusive! Culture and curricula for all practitioners universally institutionalized definition of inclusion ( Fulcher 1999 ) are setbacks! A frequent issue in current education policy ( Kvernbekk 2016 ) ( Kavale and Mostert 2004 ; Mostert Kavale...

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