Islamic thinkers like Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni also developed a scientific method, experimental medicine, a theory of optics and a legal philosophy. Injure the brain and the victim may lose their sense of reality. The point of the Socratic method is to determine the truth of a belief by means of dialectical exchange (questions and answers, hypothesis and counter-example). Answer: philosophy is concerned with determining the concept of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Nevertheless, U.S. Department of Education reports from the 1990s indicate that few women ended up in philosophy, and that philosophy is one of the least gender-proportionate fields in the humanities, with women making up somewhere between 17% and 30% of philosophy faculty according to some studies.. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd-4th/8th-10th centuries). Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology (ancilla theologiae) and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. "In the extended discussion of the concept (or concepts) of Being in Greek philosophy from Parmenides to Aristotle, the theme of existence does not figure as a distinct topic for philosophical reflection. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. The word philosophy comes from the Greek philo (love) and sophia (wisdom) and so is literally defined as “the love of wisdom”. "The contemporary attempts to determine in a purely logical way the nature of existence, by constructing a logic of existence(1) or a free logic which makes "no assumptions about the existence of the purported designata of its terms, general or singular,"(2) seems to be still premature as long as the problem of existence in its philosophical implications is not adequately resolved. The Dignāga school of pramāṇa ('means of knowledge') promoted a sophisticated form of Buddhist epistemology.  Chalmers, by contrast, sees progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Brewer argues that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of Africana philosophy, the philosophical literature of the African diaspora which includes currents such as black existentialism by African-Americans. This debate was largely the result of attempts to solve the Gettier problem. These theories all attempt to directly answer the naturequestion: what is the nature of truth? Philosophy of mind explores the nature of the mind and its relationship to the body, as typified by disputes between materialism and dualism. The various traditions of Gnosticism, which were influenced by both Greek and Abrahamic currents, originated around the first century and emphasized spiritual knowledge (gnosis). Another feature of the indigenous American worldviews was their extension of ethics to non-human animals and plants.. Islamic philosophy is the philosophical work originating in the Islamic tradition and is mostly done in Arabic. In this sense the Greek pre-Socratic philosophers were "materialists," although they were by no means materialists in the abovementioned sense of the word as a value judgment or ethical principle. The word \"ethics\" is derived from the Greek \"ethos\" (meaning \"custom\" or \"habit\"). Most notable among the schools influenced by Socrates' teachings were Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy, and his student Aristotle, who founded the Peripatetic school. After the death of the Buddha, various groups began to systematize his main teachings, eventually developing comprehensive philosophical systems termed Abhidharma. Philosophy is a general exposition of the ultimate concepts, meanings and values of the things of the universe, by a resort to their final causes which range beyond the reach of the senses. Garfield, Jay L., and William Edelglass, eds. Philosophy, which is concerned with the mental aspect, endeavours to separate out whatever in our knowledge and ideas is due to the effects of the material world, in order to determine the nature of pure mental activity. Duran, Jane. Why do we believe certain claims and not others. Eventually many writers abandon the attempt to define philosophy and, instead, turn to the kinds of things philosophers do. Print. After all, an internalist will argue, only an individual’s mental states – her beliefs about the world, her sensory inputs (for example, her sense data) and her beliefs about the relations between her various beliefs – can determine what new beliefs she will form, so only an individual’s mental states can determine whether any particular belief is justified. He writes that ‘we have a natural inclination to affirm the resemblance thesis’ and that ‘He [God] has given us a tendency to believe that things are as they appear to us’. The ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools. Tabs, July 1997. Indigenous-American philosophical thought consists of a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among different American cultures. "The English word "philosophy" is first attested to c. 1300, meaning "knowledge, body of knowledge. Native American communities, there is a belief in a metaphysical principle called the 'Great Spirit' (Siouan: wakȟáŋ tȟáŋka; Algonquian: gitche manitou). 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