Since the 16th century these courts lost their influence and disputes about forested land were decided by other courts. Thereafter the Ämter were responsible for the initial handling of civil law matters for the majority of subjects in the principality. The Duchy of Brunswick (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.Its capital was the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig).It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. After the disbandment of the common army for the overall House of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1644, elements of its regiments joined the Principality of Lüneburg and formed the Lüneburg Army. It l… In return for renunciating his participation in the government of the principality, Francis received Gifhorn Castle as compensation along with the Ämter of Fallersleben, Gifhorn and Isenhagen. These are the offices of seneschal (Truchseß), butler (Schenk), chamberlain (Kämmerer) and marshal (Marshall), which were held by certain hereditary noble families. The towns of Celle, Harburg, Lüchow, Dannenberg, Hitzacker and Soltau were independent administrations and not part of the Ämter system. 676 Related Articles [filter] The Principality of Calenberg was a dynastic division of the Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg established in 1432. In 1593, a new office of Kammerrat was created, following the adoption of a new "Chancery and Government Ordinance", to which only the governor, the Celle advocate and the chancellor reported. From 1378, the seat of the principality was in Celle. In 1618 several council chambers (Ratsstuben) were set up in accordance with a new ordinance, the Regimentsordnung. , In the early stages of the Thirty Years War, the fighting troops were still made up of mercenaries until, in 1631, under the Calenberg duke, George, troops were organised for the entire Welf House of Brunswick-Lüneburg that, for the first time, provided a permanent standing army in the service of the dukes.  From the 16th century the term Amt was used, and districts subordinate to the Ämter were then known as Vogteien. Move to "Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg" In order to conform to the usual convention, e.g. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. He initially reigned jointly with his brother, Albert the Tall, until the partition of the duchy in 1269, when John became the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Lüneburg. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.wikipedia. Search tips. Ernest had himself studied at Wittenberg and had been in contact with Luther's teachers there. At the head of the ducal chancery, the Kanzlei, the highest authority mentioned in the documents was the chief secretary or Kanzleivorsteher. Other examples include: Duchy of Schleswig, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy … The barony of Danneberg remained part of the Principality of Lüneburg, however, and important sovereign rights, such as foreign policy or tax policy, remained with the government in Celle. After both brothers had died in 1464 and 1471 respectively, Frederick the Pious left the abbey again in order to hold the reins of power for his 3-year old nephew, Henry the Middle, the son of Otto of Lüneburg and Anna of Nassau. In the 16th century several Welf secondary lines emerged which received their own territories: Following his marriage to lady-in-waiting Metta von Campen in 1527, Duke Otto relinquished his participation in the government of the principality, and was compensated with the Amt of Harburg as his own territorial lordship. The Kammerrat was responsible for key policy decisions, particularly in financial matters and the area of foreign policy, while the duties of the chancery were restricted merely to administration.  The chancery court handled all civil and criminal cases involving the nobility and the majority of senior officials. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , The Principality of Lüneburg was created by the division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a state that had been formed in 1235 from the allodial lands of the Welfs in Saxony and given as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a nephew of Henry the Lion. , In the 17th century the Lüneburg Landschaft emerged as an institution representing the estates (Landstände) of the Principality of Lüneburg. Soon after succeeding, he began to reform the church of Lüneburg to Lutheranism. In medieval times the area had been part of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.Later the majority of it belonged to Hanover and then Prussia To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. 2, p. 656ff. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg , colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg’s capital (see also: House of Hanover ). Relief shown pictorially. In 1665, Christian Louis died, and was temporarily succeeded by George's third son John, who usurped the throne over George's second son George William, who then held the Principality of Calenberg. Only with the emergence of Celle as the ducal seat in the middle of the 15th century did it take a clear shape, although individual advisors were members of the duke's inner circle for a long time.. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Cases for subjects that came under the jurisdiction of the 'closed aristocratic courts' in Wathlingen and Gartow were heard by the respective lords of the manor (Gutsherren). see Holy Roman Empire task force page and Wiki practice, I propose we move this article to Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. , When John died in 1277, the regency was held by his brother, Albert, on behalf of John's underage son, Otto the Strict, before Otto assumed power himself in 1282.  At that time, the Principality of Lüneburg included the larger part of the Lüneburg Heath and the Wendland, and measured about 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi). Prince of Wolfenbuttel at popflock.com When Duke Ernest died, his sons were still minors, and their two uncles, Otto and Francis, refused the regency. Get Prince of Wolfenbuttel essential facts. Another top priority was their political support for the towns, which were striving to develop themselves economically. He was born into the royal family of Ernest Augustus, the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Search tips. The years that followed were characterised by renewed tensions between the rulers and the landowners and attempts by the dukes to weaken the standing of the Lüneburg Sate. Harburg remained an integral part of the principality; the ducal chancery in Celle continued to be responsible for border and territorial issues, the noble knights the Amt of Harburg continued to participate in the Lüneburg estates assembly and enfeoffed by the duke in Celle. George William German language: Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. When Otto died in 1549, the Amt of Harburg should have reverted to the dukes of Celle, but Otto's son, Otto the Second, succeeded in 1560 in having a new regulation added to the severance agreement of 1527. Franz, Verwaltungsgeschichte des Regierungsbezirkes Lüneburg. As a final resort there was the option of appealing to the imperial chamber court (Reichskammergericht) in Wetzlar. His rule, like his father's, was dominated by an enforced policy of debt relief. Ernst Schubert in Geschichte Niedersachsens, Vol. Life. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germany. Belonging to the Amt was the so-called Amtshof, which was originally run by the Amtsmann, but from the 17th century was usually leased. , Beginning in the 13th century, advocacies (Vogteien) emerged in the Principality of Lüneburg as providers of local administration, sometimes in parallel with the existing magistracies and sometimes based on them. When William II of Lüneburg died in 1369 without a son, the first house of Lüneburg became extinct. Little information is available about exactly how these advocacies were established. Example: type "5 cent*" to find coins of 5 cents and 5 centimes. Otto asserted his rule through the prosecution of numerous feuds against the lesser nobility, which enabled him to achieve consolidate his ducal authority within the state. Under this new arrangement, each of the brothers would exercise power in succession, but only one of them would marry a woman of appropriate rank (so only their children could inherit). Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Germaniaball, Franciaball, East Franciaball and HREball. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II (d. 1373). , After the death of George's brother Frederick of Lüneburg, George's eldest son Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg in 1648 and became the founder of the new line of Lüneburg. In 1428 there was a further division of the Welf estate between the 2 brothers and their uncle, Bernard, Prince of Brunswick. After Duke Bernard died in 1434, his eldest son, Otto became the ruling prince. History. 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