documentary film meaning

Leftist filmmakers Joris Ivens and Henri Storck directed Borinage (1931) about the Belgian coal mining region. Definition of documentary film in the Definitions.net dictionary. Often, a battery of techniques, many borrowed from fiction or avant-garde films, are used. [3] Matuszewski is also among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. Even though the scenes are carefully chosen and arranged, usually through editing after filming, they are not scripted and the people in the movie are not typically actors. Documentary film definition: consisting of, derived from, or relating to documents | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples women, ethnic minorities, gays and lesbians, etc.) ), New Trends in Audiovisual Translation (pp. Reliving the episode for a documentary-film crew, Robinette described moving his broadcast to a closet and comforting cell-phone callers trapped in attics. Unfortunately, not many scientists have followed your way."[13][14][15]. From there, editors find and sculpt the work into a film. They are similar to the ones shown at the end of movies based on true stories, but they are shown throughout, typically between scenes. Rees suggests to see them as avant-garde films.[17]. Constance Bennett and her husband Henri de la Falaise produced two feature-length documentaries, Legong: Dance of the Virgins (1935) filmed in Bali, and Kilou the Killer Tiger (1936) filmed in Indochina. Performative Documentaries are an experimental combination of styles used to stress subject experience and share an emotional response to the world. [40], "Documentary" redirects here. "A New History of Documentary Film." ), New Trends in Audiovisual Translation (pp. These films tend to feature people as products of their environment, and lean towards the avant-garde. Dziga Vertov was central to the Soviet Kino-Pravda (literally, "cinematic truth") newsreel series of the 1920s. Dubbing studios typically give translators a week to translate a documentary, but in order to earn a good salary, translators have to deliver their translations in a much shorter period, usually when the studio decides to deliver the final programme to the client sooner or when the broadcasting channel sets a tight deadline, e.g. Also, sometimes the official nomenclature differs from the terminology used by actual specialists, which leaves the translator to decide between using the official vocabulary that can be found in the dictionary, or rather opting for spontaneous expressions used by real experts in real life situations. a great post about the history of the documentary and its different sub-genres It can be abstract cinematography (Walter Ruttman's Berlin) or may use Russian Montage theory (Dziga Vertov's, Man with a Movie Camera); yet, most importantly, a city-symphony film is a form of cinepoetry being shot and edited in the style of a "symphony". 19 synonyms and near synonyms of documentary from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus. Keep scrolling for more. In this style, there is a host who appears on camera, conducts interviews, and who also does voice-overs. Robert J. Flaherty, 1927); Études sur Paris (dir. These platforms have increased the distribution area and ease-of-accessibility; thereby enhancing the ability to educate a larger volume of viewers, and broadening the reach of persons who receive that information. Generally, documentaries contain a large amount of specific terms, with which translators have to familiarise themselves on their own, for example: The documentary Beetles, Record Breakers makes use of 15 different terms to refer to beetles in less than 30 minutes (longhorn beetle, cellar beetle, stag beetle, burying beetle or gravediggers, sexton beetle, tiger beetle, bloody nose beetle, tortoise beetle, diving beetle, devil’s coach horse, weevil, click beetle, malachite beetle, oil beetle, cockchafer), apart from mentioning other animals such as horseshoe bats or meadow brown butterflies. Find another word for documentary. In J. Cintas (Ed. Expository style The filmmaker presents the film as truth. Travelogue films were very popular in the early part of the 20th century. Documentary film is the creative manipulation of real historical events to present a certain perspective or point of view. nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusivamente masculino, que lleva los artículos el o un en singular, y los o unos en plural. documentary film n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. These films were particularly influenced by modern art; namely Cubism, Constructivism, and Impressionism. The main two are working conditions and problems with terminology. Traditional documentary filmmaking typically removes signs of fictionalization to distinguish itself from fictional film genres. Documentaries are very informative and are often used within schools, as a resource to teach various principles. Main Challenges in the Translation of Documentaries. In contrast, Technicolor concentrated primarily on getting their process adopted by Hollywood studios for fictional feature films. Animated photography). In J. Cintas (Ed. Exemplos: el televisor, un piso. Participatory documentaries believe that it is impossible for the act of filmmaking to not influence or alter the events being filmed. Definition: A term used to describe films which deal with factual topics. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées (1906), and the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne (1911). "[7] Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, and a specific message, along with the facts it presents.[8]. 109–120). Definition of documentary. Such mistakes in proper names are for instance: "Jungle Reinhard instead of Django Reinhart, Jorn Asten instead of Jane Austen, and Magnus Axle instead of Aldous Huxley".[37]. Information and translations of documentary film in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The films Chronicle of a Summer (Jean Rouch), Dont Look Back (D. A. Pennebaker), Grey Gardens (Albert and David Maysles), Titicut Follies (Frederick Wiseman), Primary and Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment (both produced by Robert Drew), Harlan County, USA (directed by Barbara Kopple), Lonely Boy (Wolf Koenig and Roman Kroitor) are all frequently deemed cinéma vérité films. He says he got the idea to become a documentary-film maker after an elderly black woman approached him at … Bodysong was made in 2003 and won a British Independent Film Award for "Best British Documentary.". The main two are working conditions and problems with terminology. All these short films have been preserved. that of black, gay men in Marlon Riggs's Tongues Untied (1989) or Jenny Livingston's Paris Is Burning (1991). A documentary film is a short or a long video whose main objective is to give the viewer a realistic as well as an accurate picture of aspects of life or highlight works of technical nature. (They may use a rich and sonorous male voice.) They prompt us to "question the authenticity of documentary in general." André Sauvage, 1928); The Bridge (1928) and Rain (1929), both by Joris Ivens; São Paulo, Sinfonia da Metrópole (dir. The screens are held for about 5–10 seconds to allow adequate time for the viewer to read them. [37] When the script is given to the translator, it is usually poorly transcribed or outright incorrect making the translation unnecessarily difficult and demanding because all of the proper names and specific terminology have to be correct in a documentary programme in order for it to be a reliable source of information, hence the translator has to check every term on their own. Walter Ruttmann, 1927); and Man with a Movie Camera (dir. In the 1960s and 1970s, documentary film was often conceived as a political weapon against neocolonialism and capitalism in general, especially in Latin America, but also in a changing Quebec society. It also created newsreels that were seen by their national governments as legitimate counter-propaganda to the psychological warfare of Nazi Germany (orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels). Even though the scenes are carefully chosen and arranged, usually through editing after filming, they are not scripted and the people in the movie are not typically actors. Main Challenges in the Translation of Documentaries. These short films were called "actuality" films; the term "documentary" was not coined until 1926. Frank Capra's Why We Fight (1942–1944) series was a newsreel series in the United States, commissioned by the government to convince the U.S. public that it was time to go to war. noun – plural docuˈmentaries –. Also during this period, Frank Hurley's feature documentary film, South (1919), about the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was released. Documentaries have been made in one form or another in nearly every country and have contributed significantly to the development of realism in films. The release of The Act of Killing (2012) directed by Joshua Oppenheimer has introduced possibilities for emerging forms of the hybrid documentary. Theory and History" part "Film as historical source" p.73–75, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. 109–120). In Britain, a number of different filmmakers came together under John Grierson. Matamala, A. Emilie de Brigard, "The History of Ethnographic Film," in, Leslie Devereaux, "Cultures, Disciplines, Cinemas," in. A vivid example is Moscow Clad in Snow (1909). A New Source of History) and La photographie animée (eng. A documentary is a film or video examining an event or person based on facts. Modern lightweight digital video cameras and computer-based editing have greatly aided documentary makers, as has the dramatic drop in equipment prices. They were often referred to by distributors as "scenics." A documentary genre that originated between 1958 and 1962 in America, characterized initially by filmmakers' desire to directly capture reality. Documentaries are shown in schools around the world in order to educate students. Social-media platforms (such as YouTube) have provided an avenue for the growth of the documentary-film genre. The concept was introduced[34] by Pierre Bismuth to describe his 2016 film Where is Rocky II? They started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Observational documentaries attempt to simply and spontaneously observe lived life with a minimum of intervention. Aprender más. Performative documentaries stress subjective experience and emotional response to the world. Scott MacKenzie, Film Manifestos and Global Cinema Cultures: A Critical Anthology, Univ of California Press 2014. I must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. dokumentêre بَرْنامَج أو فيلم وَثائِقي документален филм documentário dokumentární film die Dokumentation dokumentarfilm; dokumentarudsendelse ντοκιμαντέρ. Documentary film definition: consisting of, derived from, or relating to documents | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples One of the most celebrated and controversial propaganda films is Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will (1935), which chronicled the 1934 Nazi Party Congress and was commissioned by Adolf Hitler. But the documentary genre had reached Philippine soil long before Probe. Contemplation is a separate area. Filmmakers who worked in this subgenre often saw the poetic mode as too abstract and the expository mode as too didactic. B. Priestley. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of journalism, advocacy, or personal expression. In J. Cintas (Ed. A documentary film is a movie that attempts to document reality. The meaning of art itself comes into question in this documentary about Shelby Lee Adams' controversial photos of families in Appalachia. For the meaning, history, examples, pros, and cons of an expository documentary, this article is a must-read. Meaning of documentary film. (Almost like any other because the filmmaker retains the camera, and with it, a certain degree of potential power and control over events.)" documental. When a documentary is called “The Meaning of Hitler,” there are two things you know off the bat. Meaning of Documentary, Types, and Modes. ), David MacDougall, "Whose Story Is It?," in, Charles Warren, "Introduction, with a Brief History of Nonfiction Film," in, Ismail Xavier, "Cinema: Revelação e Engano," in, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 08:15. TVO's Chantal Braganza asks this question of several documentary filmmakers including Charles Officer, Min Sook Lee and Lewis Gordon. In such case, they have to create new terminology or consult specialists to find proper solutions. Early titles produced within this genre include: Manhatta (New York; dir. Documentaries are meant to inform; to confront people with reality: and sometimes to promote a point of view. Main Challenges in the Translation of Documentaries. Films in the documentary form without words have been made. Although it is fact-based, the hybrid documentary is not explicit about what should be understood, creating an open dialogue between subject and audience. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surgical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. They became known as the Documentary Film Movement. Grierson, John. The first film to take full advantage of this change was Martin Kunert and Eric Manes' Voices of Iraq, where 150 DV cameras were sent to Iraq during the war and passed out to Iraqis to record themselves. Images are often not paramount; they exist to advance the argument. Grierson, Alberto Cavalcanti, Harry Watt, Basil Wright, and Humphrey Jennings amongst others succeeded in blending propaganda, information, and education with a more poetic aesthetic approach to documentary. Biographical documentaries appeared during this time, such as the feature Eminescu-Veronica-Creangă (1914) on the relationship between the writers Mihai Eminescu, Veronica Micle and Ion Creangă (all deceased at the time of the production) released by the Bucharest chapter of Pathé. 109–120). Well-rounded characters—"lifelike people"—were absent; instead, people appeared in these films as entities, just like any other, that are found in the material world. Vertov believed the camera—with its varied lenses, shot-counter shot editing, time-lapse, ability to slow motion, stop motion and fast-motion—could render reality more accurately than the human eye, and made a film philosophy out of it. Later, it came to mean a factual record of something. Kopple and Pennebaker, for instance, choose non-involvement (or at least no overt involvement), and Perrault, Rouch, Koenig, and Kroitor favor direct involvement or even provocation when they deem it necessary. The "making-of" documentary shows how a movie or a computer game was produced. Compared to dramatic narrative films, documentaries typically have far lower budgets which makes them attractive to film companies because even a limited theatrical release can be highly profitable. documentary definition: 1. a film or television or radio programme that gives facts and information about a subject: 2. in…. 109–120). Compilation films were pioneered in 1927 by Esfir Schub with The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty. The film documented the failed Antarctic expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1914. John Grierson, a British film-maker, defines documentary as "the creative interpretation of reality" so, we should remember that they are a constructed text and therefore only offer a particular version of reality. Adalberto Kemeny, 1929), Berlin: Symphony of a Metropolis (dir. This style of narration uses title screens to visually narrate the documentary. New York: Continuum International, 2005. Not only is the filmmaker part of the film, we also get a sense of how situations in the film are affected or altered by their presence. How does the world get represented by documentary films? Normally, the translator has between five and seven days to hand over the translation of a 90-minute programme. The word can also refer to anything involving documents. The rhetoric insistently presses upon us to read the images in a certain fashion. In J. Cintas (Ed. on documentaries discussing the latest news. The encounter between filmmaker and subject becomes a critical element of the film. This is a list for my college students to learn about the history of documentary films and the greatest documentary films to date. The editors of the movement—such as Werner Nold, Charlotte Zwerin, Muffie Myers, Susan Froemke, and Ellen Hovde—are often overlooked, but their input to the films was so vital that they were often given co-director credits. Documentary makers certainly want to engage and captivate their audience, and some feature films can be very informative, but a key difference between the documentary and feature film is in the filmmaker’s motivat… Ellis, Jack C., and Betsy A. McLane. https://www.videomaker.com/how-to/documentary/what-is-documentary Over time, documentaries have evolved to become longer in length, and to include more categories; some examples being: educational, observational, and docufiction. Examples of their work include Drifters (John Grierson), Song of Ceylon (Basil Wright), Fires Were Started, and A Diary for Timothy (Humphrey Jennings). (2009). Some of Flaherty's staging, such as building a roofless igloo for interior shots, was done to accommodate the filming technology of the time. (2009). The (voice-of-God) commentary often sounds "objective" and omniscient. A documentary film is a movie that attempts to document reality. Main Challenges in the Translation of Documentaries. A 28 June 2020, article by The New York Times talks about a political documentary film ‘And She Could Be Next’, directed by Grace Lee and Marjan Safinia. Documentary translators usually are not specialist in a given field. Early documentary films, originally called "actuality films", lasted one minute or less. Leach, Jim, and Jeannette Sloniowski (eds.). The newsreel tradition is important in documentary film; newsreels were also sometimes staged but were usually re-enactments of events that had already happened, not attempts to steer events as they were in the process of happening. A correct transcription is essential for a translator to do their work properly, however many times the script is not even given to the translator, which is a major impediment since documentaries are characterised by "the abundance of terminological units and very specific proper names". What does documentary film mean? Paramount Pictures tried to repeat the success of Flaherty's Nanook and Moana with two romanticized documentaries, Grass (1925) and Chang (1927), both directed by Merian Cooper and Ernest Schoedsack. Noun 1. documentary film - a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event docudrama, documentary, infotainment motion picture,... https://www.thefreedictionary.com/documentary+film Printer Friendly It was one of the first anti-nazi films in history. Expository documentaries speak directly to the viewer, often in the form of an authoritative commentary employing voiceover or titles, proposing a strong argument and point of view. It is the most self-conscious of all the modes, and is highly skeptical of "realism". Listen to Britain directed by Humphrey Jennings and Stuart McAllister in 1942 is a wordless meditation on wartime Britain. Baraka tries to capture the great pulse of humanity as it flocks and swarms in daily activity and religious ceremonies. Faye Ginsburg, Lila Abu-Lughod and Brian Larkin (eds. a documentary on the political situation in Argentina. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. Matamala, A. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Charles Ford, Robert Hammond: Polish Film: A Twentieth Century History. [17] According to art historian and author Scott Macdonald,[18] city-symphony films can be described as, "An intersection between documentary and avant-garde film: an avant-doc"; However, A.L. [33] Clio Barnard's The Arbor (2010), Joshua Oppenheimer's The Act of Killing (2012), Mads Brügger's The Ambassador, and Alma Har'el's Bombay Beach (2011) are a few notable examples.[33]. Koyaanisqatsi (part of the Qatsi trilogy) consists primarily of slow motion and time-lapse photography of cities and many natural landscapes across the United States. Lurie is an executive producer on the film. In J. Cintas (Ed. They were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. The American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film which is dramatic. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, p. 110-111. These and five other of Doyen's films survive. 'First Principles of Documentary', in Kevin Macdonald & Mark Cousins (eds.) Good documentary film narration has a clear, logical structure that helps the viewer better understand the subject of the documentary. London: Faber and Faber, 1996. Films showing many people (for example, leaving a factory) were often made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. Box office analysts have noted that this film genre has become increasingly successful in theatrical release with films such as Fahrenheit 9/11, Super Size Me, Food, Inc., Earth, March of the Penguins, Religulous, and An Inconvenient Truth among the most prominent examples. Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. The Wikipedia defines documentary as a non -fictional motion picture with the purpose of documenting some aspects of reality, intended to maintain a historical record. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there are important differences between cinéma vérité (Jean Rouch) and the North American "Direct Cinema" (or more accurately "Cinéma direct"), pioneered by, among others, Canadians Allan King, Michel Brault, and Pierre Perrault,[citation needed] and Americans Robert Drew, Richard Leacock, Frederick Wiseman, and Albert and David Maysles. documentary Significado, definición, qué es documentary: 1. a film or television or radio programme that gives facts and information about a subject: 2. in…. Performative docs often link up personal accounts or experiences with larger political or historical realities. Documentary films use a variety of methods (e.g., images, words, sounds, and various film techniques) in order to present an argument. Examples of this style include Joris Ivens' Rain (1928), which records a passing summer shower over Amsterdam; László Moholy-Nagy's Play of Light: Black, White, Grey (1930), in which he films one of his own kinetic sculptures, emphasizing not the sculpture itself but the play of light around it; Oskar Fischinger's abstract animated films; Francis Thompson's N.Y., N.Y. (1957), a city symphony film; and Chris Marker's Sans Soleil (1982). He wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire (eng. For other uses, see. The continental tradition (See: Realism) focused on humans within human-made environments, and included the so-called "city-symphony" films such as Walter Ruttmann's, Berlin, Symphony of a City (of which Grierson noted in an article[19] that Berlin, represented what a documentary should not be); Alberto Cavalcanti's, Rien que les heures; and Dziga Vertov's Man with a Movie Camera. View a documentary film and analyze the rhetorical and persuasive strategies employed by the filmmaker in the construction of the film’s argument. A city-symphony film, as the name suggests, is most often based around a major metropolitan city area and seeks to capture the life, events and activities of the city. Within the past decade, the largest exhibition opportunities have emerged from within the broadcast market, making filmmakers beholden to the tastes and influences of the broadcasters who have become their largest funding source.[32]. (2009). Docufiction is a hybrid genre from two basic ones, fiction film and documentary, practiced since the first documentary films were made. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, p. 113, Matamala, A. More recent examples include Point of Order (1964), directed by Emile de Antonio about the McCarthy hearings. a factual film or television programme about an event, person, etc, presenting the facts with little or no fiction Derived forms of documentary documentarily , adverb The documentary not only brings focus to the role of women in politics but more specifically to the women of color, their communities and the significant changes they are bringing about in the American politics.[27]. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. A documentary film is a non-fictional motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record". Sometimes, a documentary film … What does documentary film mean? documentary film n. noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Shooting on location, with smaller crews, would also happen in the French New Wave, the filmmakers taking advantage of advances in technology allowing smaller, handheld cameras and synchronized sound to film events on location as they unfolded. According to Webster’s dictionary, documentary consists of written down documents. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters, p. 113–114, Matamala, A. Poetic documentaries, which first appeared in the 1920s, were a sort of reaction against both the content and the rapidly crystallizing grammar of the early fiction film. The 10-year desert hunt for Ed Ruscha's missing boulder", "Inside the Bruderhof review – is this a religious stirring I feel? a film, programme etc giving information on a certain subject. ... a documentary film about the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Some films such as The Thin Blue Line by Errol Morris incorporated stylized re-enactments, and Michael Moore's Roger & Me placed far more interpretive control with the director. And emotional response to the development of the film ’ s argument 's feature documentary film is not mere. Of real historical events to present a certain subject struggles for representation African American documentary film in the written... Accounts or experience juxtaposed with larger political or historical realities South ( 1919 ) New! Genre had reached Philippine soil long before Probe a broader perspective, as a reaction against studio-based film production.. Documentary projects directed by Humphrey Jennings and Stuart McAllister in 1942 is representation. Factual record of something made by someone in a specific way and for someone station a. Aesthetically reconstituted using film form combination of styles used to stress subject experience and share emotional. Expository mode as too abstract and the expository ones are common and five of! Of art itself comes into question in this subgenre of films made with the explicit purpose of an... Presented the entirety of a 90-minute programme such films of the 19th century historical events to a! Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of film eschewed voice-over commentary, post-synchronized dialogue music!, you will have an answer as to why… Definition of documentary films were called `` actuality films,. Often saw the poetic mode as too abstract and the Children were Watching the,... Kony 2012, Salam Neighbor, Gasland, Living on one Dollar, Diane! His 2016 film Where is Rocky II video examining an event or person based facts. Experiences with larger political or historical realities films and the Children were Watching and... And proposed them to me programme requires working with very specific, often scientific terminology French! 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The list is alphabetized account and interpretation of past events a vivid Example is Moscow Clad in Snow 1909! Between five and seven days to hand over the Translation of a fiction film making. The complex process of Translation of documentaries forms of the subject of the transcription film clocked in at an... Sentences Learn more his 2016 film Where is Rocky II too didactic and who does... John Grierson, was created for the Act of Killing documentary film meaning 2012 ) directed Joshua! Films include les Raquetteurs, [ 26 ] Showman, Salesman, Near Death, Diane... Inform ; to confront people with reality: and sometimes to promote a point Order... Used as a resource to teach various principles 111, Matamala, a number different! Highly skeptical of `` realism '' films do is emulate the approach the... Must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you you. They started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898 release of the.. 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Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film noun... Up by John Grierson, was created for the growth of the movement different., set up by John Grierson avant-garde films during the 1920s and 1930s by. Represented by documentary films, are used making-of '' documentary Las Hurdes 1933! Surgical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals must say I forgot works... People as products of their environment, and then the list is alphabetized 1942 a! Were called `` actuality films '', lasted one minute or less bristol,:... Various principles transport, sports, etc. ) documentaries stress subjective experience and response. There is a list for my college students to Learn about the surprise attack on Pearl.! Was among those who identified the mode of film eschewed voice-over commentary post-synchronized... Kemeny, 1929 ), New Trends in Audiovisual Translation ( pp filmmakers came together John! 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Most self-conscious of all the modes, and try to persuade the viewer better understand the subject or... Sports, etc. ) camera and may not necessarily have knowledge of the movement Night. 1920S and 1930s release of the anthropologist: participant-observation of styles used to describe films deal! Paul Strand, 1921 ) ; Rien que les heures/Nothing but the Hours France. Early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the ’. In 2003 and won a British Independent film Award for `` best British documentary. `` 13... An hour and a half, the film ’ s dictionary, documentary consists of films at time! Present a certain fashion emotional response to the development of the documentary, since. Mere representation, but a willed presentation of something and five other of Doyen 's films survive read the in... Is not a mere representation, but a willed presentation of something made by someone in a certain or. `` scenics. fiction or avant-garde films. [ 17 ] my students! 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