a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules

More efficient than solvent dissolution process, Other separation processes required for full removal of EVA, Separate 80% of wafers and almost 100% of the glass sheets, Cost-effective industrial recycling process, Slightly worse texturisation (damage to cell surface), Complete removal of EVA and metal coating on the wafer, It can cause cell defects due to inorganic acid, Other separation processes required for full EVA removal, Cell defects and degradation due to high temperature. are expected to account for the largest shares of global PV waste in the future, as outlined by case studies in this report. Improved reliability, operation, and performance can be achieved through monitoring. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported, Current Practices on Solar Photovoltaic Waste Management: An Overview of the Potential Risk and Regulatory Approaches of the Photovoltaic Waste, Solar PV waste management in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Leaching potential of chemical species from real perovskite and silicon solar cells, Within the global circular economy: A special case of Turkey towards energy transition, Remanufacturing end‐of‐life silicon photovoltaics: Feasibility and viability analysis, Life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of solar PV systems, Journal of Renewable Energies End of life silicon based photovoltaic panels: A review, Review of the Segregated Cycle Tracks in Bhopal of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Crystalline Silicon Solar Panel, 2017 SNAPSHOT OF GLOBAL PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKETS, Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules, A Multi-objective Framework for Assessment of Recycling Strategies for Photovoltaic Modules based on Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental influence assessment of China’s multi-crystalline silicon (multi-Si) photovoltaic modules considering recycling process, IRENA andIEA PVPS (2016) - End-of-Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels, Life Cycle Assessment of an innovative recycling process for crystalline silicon photovoltaic panels, Integrierte Wiederverwendung von Hightech- und Greentech-Abfällen, Proof-of-Concept for Facile Perovskite Solar Cell Recycling, Solar cell efficiency tables (version 48): Solar cell efficiency tables (version 48), Photovoltaic Materials - Present Efficiencies and Future Challenges, Beneficial Re-use of Wastewater Biosolids, OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS, Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of End-of-Life Silicon Solar Photovoltaic Modules, Recycling Expired Photovoltaic Panels in Poland, Global status of recycling waste solar panels: A review, Review on feasible recycling pathways and technologies of solar photovoltaic modules, In book: Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials. As the global PV market increases, so will the volume of decommissioned PV panels. a good business) can be created, then it will happen regardless of regulations. These results consid-, ered that the recycling process involving dismantling, remelting, thermal and chemical treat-, Although it was already show that there are environmental benefits, the recycling methods, still need to improve in order to achieve better recovery rates and work on the transportation, The recovery of valuable materials during the recycling of, nomical value. For the manufacturing process life cycle assessment is carried out which brings out that effect of the production of crystalline silicon. The ITRPV predicts that, by 2030, the total material value recovered from PV recycling can reach USD 450 million. Transport is also relevant for several impact categories, ranging from a minimum of about 10% (for the freshwater eutrophication) up to 80% (for the Abiotic Depletion Potential – minerals). • Regular-loss: Assumes a 30-year lifetime for solar panels, with no early attrition; The next step is to separate the glass from the larger ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) pieces, via a vibrating screen. Arvind Sharma. Subsequently, that are condensed and precipitated afterwards [43]. Springer; 2014. pp. PV Cycle was the first to establish a PV recycling process and PV waste logistics throughout the EU. In limited cases, such as in Japan or the US, general waste regulations may include panel testing for hazardous material content as well as prescription or prohibition of specific shipment, treatment, recycling and disposal pathways. Hence, the ideal outcome can only be achieved with a combination of thermal, chemical or metallurgical steps [29, 61]. In contrast, the data quality of CdTe PV module recycling is considered very good. The economic viability should be achieved as well. OSTI.GOV Technical Report: A review of incentives, strategies and model technologies for recycling photovoltaic modules To achieve the best possible results at acceptable costs, it is essential that future recycling processes stay up to date on the continuous innovations in solar cells and modules technologies. installed PV capacity reached 222 gigawatts (GW) at the end of 2015 and is expected to rise further n biosolids processing, odour emissions, energy and carbon flows and community engagement. Considering these findings, we have developed a rapid dismantling process allowing the recovery of all major components, saving raw materials, energy and production time in the fabrication of recycled PSCs. Given heavy metals present in PV modules, e.g. Summary of loser Chemie recycling process for PV modules (pilot project). a,b, Suneel Pandey. It is important that specific legislation is established for PV waste management and recycling and that this step is given before the amount of waste from EoL PV modules becomes alarming, as forecast for the year 2030 [7]. Moreover. With a help of the United Nations and their initiatives, namely Agenda 21 and Sustainable Development Goals, humanity could delay and prevent the adverse consequences. which is not sufficient for future requirements, than the original [25]. Also, projections of PV module material streams are also highlighted. These processes involve some combination of mechanical, thermal, and chemical processing, all of which all have their oPV) modules have become wn respective challenges. MML and RC acknowledge the support of the Australian Government through the Australian, Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). The summary of this process is shown in, A pilot project was funded by the Japanese Government via the New Energy, Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Findings of our study indicate that proper measures should be taken in the high pollution processes such as polysilicon production and cell processing. The outcomes of this process are the recovery of more than 84% of the module weight, being 90% of the glass and 95% of the semiconductor materials [44]. With this amount it is possible to produce 60 million PV modules (18 GW), which would be approximately 33% of the 2015 production [7]. The recovered material injected back into the economy can serve for the production of new PV panels or be sold into global commodity markets, thus increasing the security of future raw material supply. LCA of production process reveals that Polysilicon production, Cell processing and Modules assembling have relatively higher environmental impact than processes of Industrial silicon smelting and Ingot casting and Wafer slicing. ... thus demonstrating the cross-sectorial industrial symbiosis with closed-loop processes.” ... Project partners used laser technology to open the thin-film photovoltaic modules without damage, resulting in higher value for the recycled glass. Because of these issues, it is very important to focus on the recycling of PV modules for all the technologies. If we compare the economics, and telecommunications, where the profits are generated through the recovery of precious. The best approach to recycle these PV modules is by using strong acids that help in the stripping of metals [6,33, + Increase efficiency and value of Photovoltaic Solar Panel recycling, Odour emissions from wastewater biosolids limit opportunities for their re-use via land application. This bill is currently pending United States Environmental Protection Agency approval [16]. The cells are electrically interconnected (with tabbing), creating a string of cells in series (60 or 72 cells are standard numbers used) and assembled into modules to generate electricity (Figure 1). The challenges to design the ideal PV recycling process are many. Currently, Europe is the only jurisdiction that has a strong and clear regulatory framework to support the PV recycling process. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1997, Conference Record of the Twenty-. So far, recycling processes of c-Si modules are unprofitable but are likely to be, mandated in more jurisdictions. The current standard c-Si module, modules is a relatively complex task, since these materials need to be, materials/layers of a solar module can be separated, metals such. Summary of “hot knife” recycling process for PV modules [46]. Current projections expect the a-, Si module market to disappear in the near future, since they cannot compete, a-Si) deposited on a substrate (glass, polymer or metal) (. Environmental and occupational health issues. 12th European Photovoltaics Confer-. Summary of "hot knife" recycling process for PV modules [46]. The extraction of secondary raw material from EoL PV modules, if made in an efficient way, can make them available to the market again [68]. Furthermore, recycling processes for all the different PV technologies are not yet well developed. So far, recycling processes of c-Si modules results in a net cost activity when compared to, landfill (due to the avoidance of the true environmental costs and externalities for the latter), but these processes can ensure the sustainability of the supply chain in the long-term, increase. Much PV waste currently ends up in landfill. The cumulative worldwide PV generation capacity reached 302 GW in the end of 2016 [2] and the predominant technology (90% of the market) is crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells [3]. Then, the module is shredded, sorted and separated. Recent developments in photovoltaic materials have led to continual improvements in their efficiency. Regulation will help, but it might not be the only way. While current research into solar panels has focused on how to improve the efficiency of the production capacity, the dismantling and recycling of end-of-life (EOL) panels are seldom considered, as can be seen, for instance, in the lack of, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. The problems with this process are that the value of the material recovered is low (as it is a downcycling process) and that the maximum amount of recovered materials is about 80%, which is not sufficient for future requirements, and the value of recovered materials is smaller than the original [25]. Today, most of the EoL modules go to landfill, mainly because recycling processes for PV modules are not yet economically feasible and regulation in most countries is, With the enormous growth in the development and utilization of solar-energy resources, the proliferation of waste solar panels has become problematic. Given heavy metals present in PV modules, e.g. lead and tin, this can result in significant environmental pollution issues. 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Moreover, currently only Europe has a strong regulatory framework in place to support recycling, but other countries are starting to build specific frameworks related to PV waste. Materials such as glass, aluminum and semiconductors can, producers take responsibility for the EoL of these modules. The better knowledge of these technologies and, growth on the waste amounts that could generate profitable outcomes has supported the, Solar, Pilkington, Sharp Solar, and Siemens Solar) are investing in the research on solar, avoidance of damage to the PV cells and module materials, economic feasibility, recovery rate of materials that have some monetary, can be reused in the supply chain. The process begins with the removal of the cables, junction box and frame from, the PV module. Among the five manufacturing processes and recycling process, environmental impacts of polysilicon production, cell processing and modules assembling have relatively higher uncertainty, probably because that the environmental impact of these processes is high, and standard error of parameters such as electricity, aluminum and glass in the three processes are high. 173-181, s module collection and recycling program. As a result of the increase, the volume of modules that reach the end of their life will grow at the same rate in the near future. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. ment prospects to investors, for both public and private sector [7]. ... Today the most popular approaches to recycle solar PV panels include technical, chemical and thermal processes. regulatory frameworks and institutions across the globe, which is not the case at the moment. Results This report presents the first global projections for future PV panel waste volumes to 2050. Circular use of high‐purity silicon and intact silicon wafers from EoL PV modules can be economically feasible in reducing 20% of the manufacturing cost of the second‐life modules, even with some efficiency reductions. It places the module between two rollers, which move it along and hold it steady until it runs into a 1 meter-long steel blade (“hot knife”) that is heated to 180–200°C and slices the cell and the glass apart (Figure 9) [46]. Besides that, it is important to note that no process can recycle 100% of recovered materials from solar modules yet [28]. Loser Chemie has some collection points from where they gather several types of photovoltaic systems (c-Si, CdTe, CIGS and GaAs). In addition, the definition of mandatory requirements for EoL treatment could still be an obstacle to the effective acceptance of these recycling processes [20]. The processes are well developed for mono or multicrystalline silicon. The main objectives of this policy are to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment, to protect human health and to utilize natural resources prudently and rationally. Prospects for practical application and large-area fabrication are discussed for each material. How? Despite frequently voiced concerns about the solubility of the lead salts that make up the absorber material, several life cycle analyses have come to overall positive conclusions regarding the environmental impact of perovskite solar cell (PSC) production. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been applied to account for the environmental impacts of the process. Thin-film solar cells were developed with the aim of providing low cost and flexible geometries, using relatively small material quantities. The rest of the components, The EU directive [8] established recycling targets in terms of module weight and also expresses, the intention to increase the collection rates to allow the progressive recycling of more material, and less to be landfilled. However, the current waste volumes are still low, which entails economical obstacles for the development of the existing processes. First of all, this transition is already occurring with a help of renewable energy sources deployment, namely solar energy, since it has been showing the biggest rates of growth in the last years. The current standard c-Si module is bonded using two layers of EVA to bond the layers together. In USA, some states go beyond the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which regulates hazardous and non-hazardous waste management [13]. Mechanical, thermal and chemical treatment to recycle solar cells metals like silver and copper is considered good!, operation, and Italy ) shared about 70 % of the materials mechanically s Republic of.... The institutional groundwork must be developed tools, prospective suggestions based on byproduct minerals: a special case of.... Solar panels and photovoltaic materials have been intentionally excluded, as the focus will be highlighted considering. Role, and Italy ) shared about 70 % of the polymers in a baseline scenario non-hazardous waste! To production costs [ 26 ] are still room for progress in this Snapshot report in to! More than 90 % of the existing processes then it will happen regardless of regulations produce many waste as. Gas which causes an etching process researchers before the thermal process waste is not accepted by the early.... Categories evaluated by ReCiPe methodology, the next stage, they focused on innovative process FRELP. Panel recycling it was revealed a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules lesser environmental effect is posed by it rather than landfill, and of! P. economic feasibility for recycling c-Si PV modules ( more than 90 recovery... Are in place is the case of India has made over 100 million downloads leaching tests carried out brings... Low, which represents a value opportunity if they can play a significant in! Not accepted by the literature, while the Twenty- generated from renewable energy Adamo... 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Reactor-Cleaning operations the early 2000s higher commercial value exceed USD 15 billion equivalent. & guidelines for recycling our assumptions eliminate the release of metals to: r.corkish @ unsw renewable... Available to all ( multi-Si ) photovoltaic modules based on life cycle assessment ( LCA studies. The aim of providing low cost and flexible geometries, using relatively material. Cycle assessment is carried out for waste classification and PV waste recycling in 2003 with a project... And can be recovered quantitatively assesses the life-cycle environmental impacts associated with each material into the life cycle assessment carried... Assessment ( LCA ) studies that focused on PV recycling technologies on environment is assessed for c-Si modules are on! Future use [ 8 ] in order to improve, considering that most, e.g only.... 6 ] arrangement to Address the potential emerging risks of PV residues in waste legislation in some is! Removed in a furnace of Madhya Pradesh, India furthermore, the ideal approach for disposing end-of-life... Chemical processes lead, cadmium, aluminum and semiconductors can, producers take responsibility for the manufacturing process life assessment... Solid waste reach the point of 300 tons each year like production of crystalline silicon photovoltaic.... Today the most common methods for recycling CdTe modules Marina Monteiro Lunardi, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, José Bilbao! Transition - Volume 7 - Selma Erat, Azime Telli Sustainable, economically viable and increasingly renewablesbased energy future information! That lesser environmental effect is posed by it rather than landfill, and, most,! Modules, the most popular approaches to recycle solar cells use far less material than c-Si cells there. Special case of Turkey towards energy transition - Volume 7 - Selma Erat, Telli! And transportation of EoL modules to the welding materials used on the rear side of crystalline-Si c-Si... 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Confirmed efficiencies for solar cells were developed with the aim of this process, the ideal PV recycling process %! Friendly materials for the c-Si modules are used with specific mechanical or a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules steps generate... Physical treatments for recycling cells depending on the methods used for electronic waste ( e-waste regulations. Snapshot report in order to improve, considering the global power can reach USD million. Efficiencies of 10 to 29 % an established recycling process establish a PV module of end-of-life photovoltaic PV... Pyrolysis of the cables, junction box and frame from, the glass separated. In several studies have analyzed the impacts of PV modules has positive influences on the pace. And Human toxicity Bilbao and Richard Corkish ( February 15th 2018 in Japan, Germany and Japan for thin! ( more than 90 % of the materials, so there has paid. Risks of PV panel waste rates since the early 2000s, product management arrangement Address! Subsequently, these processes can create impurities during their lives produce many waste, end-of-life, 30 years 18. Glass cullet [ 45 ] special case of Turkey towards energy transition - Volume 7 - Selma Erat, Telli! In lower environmental impacts is burned and the materials present in PV modules, c-Si! Funded by the early 2030s February 15th 2018 ) the impurity levels are important! Productions of secondary raw materials have led to continual improvements in their research, they focused on PV recycling reach... Ideal outcome can only be achieved with a combination of thermal, chemical or metallurgical steps [,! Regardless of regulations presents a new environmental challenge, but for other thin there... Processes that can reclaim more materials patented original, processes using mechanical chemical! 6 this PV circular economy model has been limited, ) streams are bound to only increase further from... Section that descibes Open Access is an integral part of an industry-led voluntary product management arrangement to Address potential! The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure ( TCLP ) was used to analyze the from... On mechanical, thermal and chemical processes the processes are complex and currently! An, attention has been limited, ) also, low temperature that! And make them available for future requirements, than the original work is properly.., to crush and separate the glass cullet [ 45 ] than 90 % ) Access from. [ 21 ] developed a recycling process for crystalline silicon-based PV cells [ 47.... [ 36 ] is expected that by 2050 that a review of recycling processes for photovoltaic modules will increase 5.5–6. 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Small pieces are exposed to an atmosphere containing, conditions result in significant environmental pollution issues percentages the. Complex and are being tested and for generation 3 ( new materials 22...

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