Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Historians of science, I think fortunately, have been unclassifiable with respect to the three great divisions of knowledge in our current classification system. Optimizing the Crisis. The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. Of course, algorithmic rules also have a long history: the rules of arithmetic are the ur-algorithmic rules, but they constitute a tiny minority of all rules. The rank-and-file membership of the NWRO grew dramatically through the late-60s, reaching over 20,000 dues paying members and 540 grassroots groups by the end of the decade, and gaining influence over national welfare politics. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. In legal contexts, this situation is familiar: sometimes applying the letter of the law betrays the spirit of the law—think of The Merchant of Venice as a paradigmatic case. Jack has 5 jobs listed on their profile. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the bumbling amateur actors Bottom and his fellow artisans are called rude mechanicals, which suggests both their bumptiousness and the kind of work they do. The problem was that they didn’t work very well—Pascal suggested that you should check the results of the calculating machine by hand, which sort of defeated their purpose. In his telling, mathematical probability hit with the suddenness of a thunderbolt. ld: I think the best short description of what I do is the history of the self-evident. ld: To rehearse the obvious argument against gambling as the triggering factor: people have been gambling since time immemorial. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … jg: It seems that there’s a thread that ties together calculation, Cold War rationality, and mathematical probability, which is the rationalization and formalization of various aspects of human judgment. Prudential Insurance, for example, had a workshop entirely devoted to repairing broken down calculating machines. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. They have also lived in Reynoldsburg, OH and Worthington, OH. After many of Jack's colleagues over the age of 50 were met with a similar fate, he decided to fight back against what he believed to be a clear injustice, and at first, the courts were on … Historically, it is actually something of an anomaly in the human sciences that these two approaches have split apart. The best result we found for your search is Jack P Gross age 60s in Robbinsville, NC. Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. JFI is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit applied research organization founded in 2014 by Bob Jain. ld: History of science lies in the middle of a triangle defined by the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Summary: Jack Gross is 104 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 01/01/1916. Jack is related to Sandra J Gross and Donald P Gross as well as 3 additional people. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. He played the Tuba in the Eastern High School Marching band. Over the course of the 19th century, schoolboys were increasingly replaced by women as the cheapest and most reliable form of labor. Mixed Martial Arts on ESPN.com: latest news, scores, schedule, stats, and highlights from ESPN He was also seen in a Canadian series entitled Slings and Arrows, where he was highly praised for his performance. In the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, and in the latter it does not. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. There’s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious attraction to doing this kind of history. Phenomenal World September 30th, 2019 Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World. The best result we found for your search is Jackie Gross age 40s in Cimarron, KS. Somewhat infamous for his post-tenure radicalism, Marglin has published extensively on a wide range of topics over his decades-long career. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. We normally think of austerity as a process of paring back services, but those measures also generate new institutions. They have also lived in Hays, KS and Dodge City, KS. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. jg: There seems to be a tension between the idea that mathematical probability can encourage the development of sovereign reasoning and the notion that we need to quantify and formalize the faculty of judgment. Jack Gross Eaton Rapids, MI Born January 13, 1961 in Lansing, the son of John and Melba (Trim) Gross, died October 10, 2012 at the age of 51. I think there are two explanations: one minor, and one major, and both are still very much with us. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. Something as simple as shifting from one language to another can prompt you to think historically about how all these forms of knowledge are intertwined. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. ld: I think that’s correct, but I didn’t initially think of these projects as being linked. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. They have also lived in Avoca, NY and Grove City, PA plus 2 other locations. Our mission is to address pressing social problems by identifying and implementing high-impact interventions that will translate to real world progress. The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. It was also because it reached into other fundamental concepts: not only concepts like evidence, which Barbara Shapiro treats so beautifully in her book on 17th-century English notions of probability, but also notions of truth and falsehood. Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? Merely mechanical rules take no thought or intelligence to apply; they narrow room for discretion. These two modes of inquiry, so often opposed to each other, seem to me to work hand-in-glove, at least from the standpoint of the goals of scientific explanation. Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. Summary: Jack Gross is 70 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 10/01/1949. It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. "I've been doing this for quite some time, I don't recall since the I-78 boom in late 80s, early 90s, such an appreciation rate," said Jack Gross, President of Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS. The liberal arts—subjects taught at the university: grammar, rhetoric, logic, astronomy, music, arithmetic, geometry—were opposed to the mechanical arts, which were practical activities involving handiwork, such as farming and cooking. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. One part of this story, then, is the association of calculation first with the division of labor, and then with very cheap labor. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. Condorcet’s curriculum featured instruction in probability—a reasonable calculus—to give future citizens a kind of road map for decision making. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. In a conjuncture defined by high ideological tension, in which elite consensus and power structures seem increasingly discredited and the scope of political possibility is wider than in recent memory, Phillips-Fein's work is particularly topical. ld: My college education in the 1970s coincided with the first phases of what we might call quantiphrenia: the beginning of academic evaluation in the form of not only grade point averages, but also citation indices, and so on. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. And it can work in the other direction—a hypothesis developed from ethnographic work may require statistical testing. And, crucially, the early figures of mathematical probability—Pierre de Fermat, Leibniz, and Pascal—all had extensive experience in the law. Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. Few theorists of social movements have shaped the events that they analyze. He manages the Phenomenal World. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. To have a spectrum, in which there were degrees of probability between the extreme values of truth and falsehood, was a gobsmacking upheaval. Currently, Jack lives in Orlando, FL. September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . Phenomenal World January 29th, 2020 Historicizing the Self-Evident — Jack Gross James McNeil Whistler, Red and Pink the Little Mephisto, 1884 . Wissenschaft—the German word for “science,” which includes all forms of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample term. Aleatory contracts were particularly important because they were one way to get around prohibitions against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury. It’s salutary to work in a language like German, which, unlike English, did not narrow the meaning of “science” in the 19th century to mean only the natural sciences. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? The best result we found for your search is Jack Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY in the Flushing neighborhood. There’s not a machine in sight. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. A very giving man, he literally would starve so others could eat and break his leg to fix someone else’s. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? An interview with Seda Gürses and Bekah Overdorf. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. This is both because the maid is a woman in a dependent relation to her master and because of the remote inferential link between committing the crime and the observed psychological state of the subject. The second best result is Jack D Gross age 60s in Columbus, OH in the Maize-morse neighborhood. I think it’s an artifact of the educational system. jg: Your book makes a strong case that the quantification pursued by the early probabilists was founded on legal concepts, like “degrees of uncertainty” and “probabilistic expectation.” This comes as a corrective to a common notion, which is that probability theory emerged from gambling or games of chance. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. These two senses of “mechanical” converge with Charles Babbage, the mathematician who designed the first computers. If probability theory were a kind of natural evolution from gambling, it should have emerged in many places, in many epochs, long before the 17th century. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. Jack likes writing stories and scripts, at last count he had over 40 stories in the works. Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. That really changes over the course of the 20th century. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? He manages the Phenomenal World. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. 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