The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras.  This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million.  In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated.  For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. The total population of Mumbai UA/Metropolitan region is 18,394,912. Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.  The Pathare Prabhus, among the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. As per data released by Govt.  The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. The Mumbai Leg of Pro Kabaddi is held at the NSCI, Worli.  BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London. The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males.  With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking.  Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%.  As per Indian government population census of 2011, Mumbai was the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.5 million living under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai's major financial centres.  Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. It was ranked 10th among the top Universities of India by QS in 2013. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and several other management schools.  On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane). The area of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai is 437.37 sq. , The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. ", Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city", "Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year", "District Census Handbook -MUMBAI SUBURBAN", "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06", "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top", "Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board", "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India", "Background: A rich history now stained with blood", "Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing?  There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India. Its administrative limits cover Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban Districts, and parts of Thane and Raigad District.  The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. , The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy. The Central Pollution Control Board for the Government of India and the Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai monitor and publicly share real-time air quality data. , Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Covering areas such as Bandra, Andheri, Borivalli, Juhu beach,Marve beach, Malad and Ekshr, it is governed by Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation or the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai which also looks after the civic infrastructure of whole Mumbai.  Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by 2011.  The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky. , In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South.  As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square) and a memorial was erected. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region extends over an area of 4355 sq. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. Andheri (West) 400 058. The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. 'Brihan' comes from the Sanskrit word "brihat" which essentially means "big/major".  The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. , In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively.  For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay. , Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles as of March 2014, 56,459 black and yellow taxis as of 2005[update], and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of May 2013.  It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo.  However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, under the jurisdiction of the municipal corporation, is headed by the chief fire officer, who is assisted by four deputy chief fire officers and six divisional officers.  Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the federal University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The district along with Mumbai City district and other suburban localities make up Greater Mumbai on Salsette Island.The district occupies an area of 446 km². The powers of the commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the corporation or the standing committee. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai.  In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.  The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. In the 2019 state assembly election, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 16 were won by the BJP, 11 by the Shiv Sena, 6 by the Congress, 2 by the NCP and one by independent candidate. , Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. , The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network.  BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998.  The mayor, who serves for a term of two and a half years, is chosen through an indirect election by the councillors from among themselves. , Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top.  The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history. As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Mumbai in 2011 is 12,442,373; of which male … Balkum 400 608.  As of 2008[update], the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.  The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.  Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use.  The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were cut out between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century CE. Nifty 14,563.45 78.7. , The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 across the creek at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. , Between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. " While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature. , In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. Around 1200 tons of C&D waste per day (TPD) is being generated in the 24 wards of Mumbai from ‘debris on call’ service & unclaimed debris. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai.  Power supply cables are underground, which reduces pilferage, thefts and other losses.   According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2013 was 63 μg/m3, which is 6.3 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5. km.) Municipal Corporations. Mumbai Suburban District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division.Its headquarters is in Bandra.It consists of three administrative subdivisions : Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. NSE Gainer-Large Cap . The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.  Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 60,000 though with a sharply declining population. All executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year.  Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea.  The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.  Dharavi, in central Mumbai, has an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.  The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 and fifteen smaller municipal councils 1989, is used only for and! The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai and its )... 2000S saw a growth in Bollywood 's popularity overseas of numerous Indian companies multinational! 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